Open Access Short Research Article

Feed Wastage Management in Rabbit Production using Different Feeders

O. O. Musa, N. F. Anurudu, A. A. Badejoko

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 31-38

Aims: This study was carried out to reduce the wastage caused by pawing effects of rabbits by introducing different feeder types.                                                                                                    

Study Design: Completely Randomized Design                                                                                     

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at Hephzibah and Beulah Farms, Ibadan, Nigeria between September 2018 and October 2018 (4 weeks).

Methodology: 36 rabbits in 1:2 ratio of growers to weaners respectively, were allocated to 3 different feeder types: Open Mouth Feeder (OMF), Tin Feeders (TF) and Hollow Mouth Feeders (HMF) in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The rabbits were fed a formulated diet in ration of 120g/day for the first 3 weeks of the experiment and 150g/day for the last week of the experiment, while water was supplied ad-libitum throughout the experiment.

Results: In the weaner rabbits, the results showed that although there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the Weight Gain and FCR across the 3 treatments throughout the experiment, Feed Intake and Feed wastage, varied statistically in the first week and numerically in subsequent weeks, the intake and wastage were highest and lowest respectively for rabbits fed with OMF type. For the grower rabbits: feed intake was significantly higher (p<0.05) with rabbits fed with the TF types across the last 3 weeks of the experiment, concurrently, feed wastage was significantly lower (P<0.05) with rabbits fed with the TF types across the last 3 weeks of the experiment. Weight gain and FCR on the other hand were not significantly different (p>0.05) across the 3 treatments for the four weeks of the experiment.

Conclusion: It was concluded that HMF encourage feed wastage in rabbit production, and as a replacement, OMF should be encouraged for weaner rabbits while TF is ideal for the grower rabbits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship among Liveweight and Body Dimensions of the Greater Cane Rat (Thrynomys swinderianus)

A. K. Durowaye, A. E. Salako, O. H. Osaiyuwu, O. E. Fijabi

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 1-9

The objective of this study was to predict the live weight (LW) of domestically kept Grasscutters from some morphological parameters.  The study was carried out at the Grasscutter section of FAK Farms, Apata, Ibadan. Data were recorded on body length (BL), tail length (TL), heart girth (HG), wither height and head length (HL) and body weights of 45 animals (25 females and 20 males) selected at random. Body weights and linear body measurements were recorded for the animals at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age using the simple kitchen digital weighing balance and traditional tape measure respectively and the data obtained were subjected to descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation and regression analysis (P=0.05). Mean body length, tail and head lengths, heart girth and wither height were 51.38±3.03cm, 16.76±1.05cm, 10.01±0.42cm, 28.90±1.39cm and 13.66±0.75cm respectively for the male Grasscutters and 45.92±10.01cm, 14.62±0.84cm, 9.40±0.42cm, 28.06±1.41cm and 13.83±0.78cm respectively for the female Grasscutters. The correlation coefficients between LW and body measurements ranged from 0.251 to 0.909 for the male grasscutters and 0.347 to 0.945 for the female grasscutters with the highest correlation of 0.909 and 0.945 for the association between liveweight (LWT) and HG for males at 12 months of age and females at 9 months indicating sexual dimorphism.

The coefficients of determination (R2) for the prediction equations recorded highest for heart girth {LWT= -0.101+0.095HG (82.6%)} at 12 months and {LWT= -2.671+0.148HG (89.4%)} at 9 months for the male and female Grasscutters respectively. Using the linear function from the R2 value, BL, WH and HG were better predictors of LW than TL and HL. The best predictor of body weight was heart girth for both the male and the female.

In conclusion, the use of BL, WH and HG in a given function explained better the variation in LW than the use of just one body measurement and can provide a basis for selection.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Dairy Cows for Milk Yield in the Cool Tropical Climate of Plateau State, Nigeria

D. O. Omoniwa, R. O. Okeke, O. O. Adeniyi, J. M. Madu, D. S. Bunjah Umar

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 10-15

Genetic improvements of milk yield in the tropics necessitate the use of exotic cattle to the upgrade the performance of local cattle. The data for the study came from two different genotypes namely Holstein Friesian and FriesianxBunaji crossbred on the Plateau State in Nigeria. Milk production traits measured were 305-day fat corrected milk yield, daily milk yield, 100-day fat corrected milk yield, total fat yield, total protein yield and lactation length. Six milk production indices (Fat corrected milk yield kilogram weight; FCM Kg W, fat corrected milk yield kilogram metabolic weight; FCM Kg MW, fat corrected milk yield per day per kilogram weight; FCM/day/kgW, fat corrected milk yield per day per kilogram metabolic weight; FCM/day/kgMW, net energy efficiency and dairy merit). The R 3.0.3 statistical software was used for basic descriptive, t-test and regression analysis. Milk production traits were significantly (P<0.05) influenced by genotype. Neural network models had the best prediction accuracy for estimating milk yield. It is concluded that considerable genetic variation existed between genotypes in milk production and efficiency traits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Pathology of Caprine Coccidiosis in South Darfur State, Sudan

Mohammed Ahmed Abdalla Khairelsiad, Amir Mustafa Saad, Yassin Abdulrahim, A. Abdelnasir, El Tigani Ahamed El Tigani, Mohammed Hamid

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 16-22

This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence and pathology of coccidiosis in local breeds of goats in South Darfur State and the factors affecting it. One hundred faecal samples were directly collected from the rectum during September – December 2017, from goats, kept in an open system. The animals were grouped according to sex (34 males and 66 females), and according to age group (85 goats in the age one year or more, 15 less than one year). Oocysts were detected using the floatation method; the McMaster method was used for oocysts count. Length, width and size were measured by calibrated microscope attached to computer for the parasite identification. On the other hand, 100 samples of intestine sections were collected for gross and microscopic examination, from Nyala North slaughterhouse. The gross intestinal lesions were reported and sections for histopathology were made according to standard method. The overall prevalence of coccidiosis in goats was 65% in South Darfur State. Eimeria species identified were: E. alijevi (15.7%), E. hirci (26.3%), E. ninakohlyakimovae (36.8%), and E. caprovina (21%). The infection was higher in goat kids compared to adults. The gross lesions were characterized by scattered white nodules in the intestinal wall particularly in the jejunum and ileum as well as hemorrhages. Microscopically there were hemorrhages in the mucosa; hyperplasia of the mucosal epithelium with infiltration of inflammatory cells mainly lymphocytes, plasma cells, and eosinophils in the lamina propria, and presence of different developmental stages of the parasite in the intestinal epithelium and mucosal glands. Coccidiosis in goats resulting from complex interactions between parasites and host with many factors contributing to the severity of the disease, kids are more susceptible to infection with the clinical coccidiosis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Haematological Indices of Growing Rabbits Fed Herbaceous Plants as Sole Diet

S. S. Aderibigbe, D. O. Adejumo, O. E. Fijabi, T. G. Johnson

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 23-30

Competition between humans and animals for food is inevitable since some feed stuffs used as animal feed are also consumed by humans. Therefore, suitable alternatives for animal feed are compelling. This study was conducted with 32 mixed bred (New Zealand white and Chinchilla) growing rabbits (16 bucks and 16 does of 7 to 8 weeks old and of average weight 1.03kg) for a period of seven (7) weeks to assess haematological indices of rabbits fed herbaceous plants as sole diet. The rabbits were completely randomized into Corchorus olitorius (T1), Moringa oleifera (T2) and Telfairia occidentalis (T3) and commercial feed as the control diet (T0), with each treatment having eight rabbits, in four replicates of two rabbits per replicate. Blood samples were collected pre and post exposure to the treatment. Haematological parameters assayed were packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was carried out for the assessment of the variations in these parameters. The values obtained (Mean ± SD) for each blood parameter pre-exposure to the treatment were within the normal physiological range of healthy rabbit, except the value of the Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) which was lower than the normal physiological range. Blood indices assayed for, post exposure to treatment showed significant difference (P < 0.05) in the Mean corpuscular hemoglobin. Based on the data from the haematological parameters. It was concluded that Corchorus olitorius could solely sustain rabbits with no adverse effect on their well being.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of COVID-19 on Butchers and Meat Processors in Ghana: Implication on Food (Meat) Biosecurity

Frederick Adzitey, Stephen K.K. Monten, Evans Boateng Frimpong

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 39-54

Aims: COVID-19 had an impact on the food (meat) biosecurity of Ghana. Butchers and meat processors ensure food biosecurity by making meat available, accessible, stable, and affordable to Ghanaians. This study assessed the impact of COVID-19 on butchers and meat processors in the Tamale metropolis, Ghana. 

Study Design: A semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain data from 98 randomly selected butchers and 4 local meat processors on the impact of COVID-19 on their operations.

Results: COVID-19 had a very negative impact on both butchers and meat processors. Low sales were a prominent impact experienced by both butchers and meat processors. Lack of animals to buy was the most important effect of COVID-19 on their business and threatens the food biosecurity of Ghanaians in terms of protein intake from animal sources. All the meat processors, but only 51% of the butchers were prepared for COVID-19. The butchers (90.8%) expected the government to make farming resources available during the COVID-19 period, while meat processors (50.0%) expected the transport to be provided. To ensure the survival of the meat industry to promote food biosecurity after COVID-19, butchers (59.2%) proposed the provision of financial support for their business whilst the meat processors (50.0%) proposed that animals should be thoroughly checked at the borders.

Conclusion: The findings of the study revealed that COVID-19 negatively affected the meat industry of Ghana and was a potential threat to the country’s food (meat) biosecurity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of Broilers Birds Administered Graded Levels Oxytetracycline in Sokoto, Nigeria

S. Abubakar, A. U. Abdullahi, M. L. Usman, G. Sani, H. B. Usman

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 55-61

Aim: The study investigated the effect of oxytetracycline on broiler birds.

Study Design: The study was conducted using a total of 288 broiler birds in a Completely Randomized Design with four treatments T1 (20 mg/kg), T2 (40 mg/kg), T3 (60 mg/kg) and T4 (control).

Place and Duration of Study: (to be furnished)

Methodology: to be furnished

Results: The result shows no significant difference (P>0.05) among T4 (control), T2 and T3 in all parameters measured except between T4 and T2 in final body weight. Where birds in T4 have significantly higher values than those in T2. At finisher stage, birds fed 20mg/kg OTC (T1) recorded lower feed intake, body weight and average body weight gain per bird compared to birds in T2, T3 and T4. There is no significant difference (P<0.05) between T2, T3 and T4 in terms of final  body weight gain per bird. Total feed intake is higher in control (T4) compared to T3, T2 and T1)

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Age on the Physical Semen Characteristics of Arbor Acres Broilers under Sudan Conditions

Abu Baker E. I. Hassan, Babiker A. Elsharif, Suhair S. Mohammed

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 62-73

Background and objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of age on semen characteristics of arbor acres cocks reared in Sudan.

Materials and Methods: One day old ten male broiler chicks were randomly selected and reared in cages. Temperature was adjusted at 25C and photostimulation program of arbor acres breeder was applied. They were fed pre-starter ration in the first week, starter ration in 2-5 weeks , growing ration in 6-18 weeks, pre-production ration 19-23 weeks and production ration 24- 42 weeks of age . Semen samples were weekly collected from the 22nd week up to 42th .Semen samples were evaluated for color, volume (SV), sperm mass motility (MM), percent of individual motility percent (IMP), live sperm (LSP), concentration (SC) and abnormal sperm percent (ASP).

Results: Out of the 230 samples obtained ,197 (85.65%) were creamy and 27 (11.74%) were white milky in consistency, the other 6 (2.61%) samples were turbid and watery. The mean values obtained for SV (0.29±0.02 ml), MM (2.25±0.63) in the 26th week of age were significantly higher compared to the initial collection values (0.24±0.12/ml), (1.75±0.54 ) respectively where they tended to decrease gradually with advanced age . However, at the 30th weeks of age the values obtained for IMP (81.62±9.36), LSP (87.70±4.15) and SC (3.21±1.62) were higher, compared to the initial values and decreased with advanced age thereafter. The values obtained for ASP in the 22nd week of age were significantly higher (9.63±4.26) compared to the following values up to the end of the experiment where a general pattern of reduction was observed.

Conclusions: It is concluded that semen characteristics of Arbor Acres cocks reared in Sudan are within the normal range and are adversely affected by advanced age.

Open Access Original Research Article

Histogenesis of the Camel(Camelus dromedarius) Foetal Ovary with Special Emphasis to the Follicular Development and its Histometric Characteristics

Hidaia B. Zolain, Dafa Alla I. Osman

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 74-105

The aims of the present study are to investigate the histology of the different components of the foetal camel ovary, with special emphasis to the ovarian follicles and to determinate some histometric characteristics of the ovary during prenatal life. The present study was conducted in 79 foeti at different ages of development. The specimens were classified into first trimester (19 foeti), second trimester (26 foeti) and third trimester (34 foeti) according to the equation .The curved crown vertebral rump length (CVRL) equation Y= 0.366X-23.99 which was described by ELWishy et al., (1981) was used for the determination of the foetal age (X) in days from the known (Y) curved crown rump length in centimeters. Then the standard histological techniques were used to prepare the histological slides.  The primordial germ cells migrated through the mesentery and were found between the cells of the surface epithelium. The first primordial follicles appeared at (25 cm CVRL)   about (134 days old foetus) while at (28 cm CVRL) about (142 days old foetus) the first primary follicle was observed and at (65 cm CVRL) about (243 days old foetus) the first growing follicle was formed. The antral follicles were found only during the third trimester.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bacterial Quality of Goat Raw Milk in Khartoum State, Sudan

Salih A. Mohamedsalih, El Ayis A. Abubaker

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 106-111

This study was aiming at investigating the bacteriological quality of raw goat’s milk in Khartoum State during 6 months of the year 2019. A total of 60 samples of raw goat’s milk were collected from different localities of Khartoum State as follows: 20 samples from Khartoum Locality, 20 from Bahri Locality and 20 from Omdurman Locality. Samples were subjected for bacteriological Viable Count using Plate Count Agar (PCA) and Coliform Count (CC) methods.For goat's milk samples collected from Khartoum Locality, 11 (55.0%) scored the mean APC of 25X105CFU/ml and 9 (45.0%) scored the mean Aerobic Plate Count(APC) of 15X103CFU/ml. Coliforms were detected in 5 (25.0%) of milk samples with the mean CC of 10X103CFU/ml. Out of 20 goats' milk samples collected from Bahri Locality, 8 (40.0%) scored the mean APC of 20X105CFU/ml and 12 (55.0%) scored the mean APC of 18X103CFU/ml. Coliforms were detected in 6 (30.0%) of milk samples with the mean CC of 10X103CFU/ml. For goat's milk samples collected from Omdurman Locality, 14 (70.0%) scored the mean APC of 21X105CFU/ml and 6 (30.0%) scored the mean APC of 19X103CFU/ml. Coliforms were not detected in milk samples.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of Bovine Respiratory Disease in Dairy Calves in Bahri Locality, Sudan

Eltigany K. G. Amna, El Ayis A. Abubaker

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 112-120

Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is considered the major cause of economic losses in dairy and beef cattle production due to its high morbidity and mortality rates. Opportunistic bacteria are factors for the development of BRD. This study was aimed at investigation of BRD in dairy calves in Bahri locality, Sudan. The study was carried out during six months of the years 2019 and 2020. This simplified scoring system which used assessed six clinical signs.  When present, a specific number of points were assigned for each sign. A total score of 5 or higher classified an individual as a BRD case. Among 450 dairy calves investigated for presence of BRD, 40 calves (8.9%) were positive for the scoring system. Out of the 40 dairy calves positive for BRD scoring system, 24 (60%) were male calves. Out of 40 dairy calves positive for BRD scoring system, 25 (62.5%) 1 month old, 5 (12.5%) were 1.5 month, 4 (10.0%) were 2 months, 2 (5.0%) were 2.5 months and 4 (10.0%) were 3 months. Out of 40 dairy calves positive for the scoring system in Bahri Locality, 40 (100.0%) appeared nasal discharges, 31 (77.5%) eye discharges, 33 (82.5%) coughing, 25 (62.5%) difficult breathing, 13 (32.5%) fever and 29 (72.5%) Ear drop or head tilt. In this investigation a total of 43 bacterial isolates were obtained from 40 nasal swab samples collected from pneumonic calves in Bahri locality. The identified bacteria according to bacteriological examiations were: 8 S. aureus (18.6%), 3 S. epidermidis (6.9%), 2 S. chromogenes (4.7%), 5 Str. Pneumoniae (11.6%), 2 Str. uberis (4.7%), 3 K. pneumoniae (6.9%), 7 E. coli (16.3%), 6 Ps. aerogenosa (13.9%), 2 B. subtilis (4.7%), 2 M. variens (4.7%) and 3 M. luteus (6.9%). Staphylococci represented the predominant bacteria (30.2%) isolated from nasal swabs compared to other bacteria E. coli (16.3%), Streptococci (16.3%), Ps. aerogenosa (13.9%), Micrococci (11.6%) K. pneumoniae (6.9%) and B. subtilis (4.7%).

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Parameters of Growth Traits of Indigenous Guinea Fowls (Numida meleagris galeatea) from Northern Ghana

A. A. Agbolosu

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 121-130

This study was carried out to estimate some genetic parameters of growth traits of indigenous guinea fowls in northern Ghana. Forty-six-week-old guinea fowls were selected at random from a randomly mating breeding population consisting of birds from Northern, Upper East, Upper West and Volta regions in 2010 and raised at the Livestock and Poultry Research Center of the University of Ghana until 2015. Parameters taken were hatch weight (BW0), weight at 2 weeks (BW2), BW4, BW6, BW 8, BW10, BW12, BW16, BW20, BW24, BW28, BW32, BW36, brooding daily gain (BDG0-4), post brooding daily gain from 4 weeks to 8 weeks (PBDG4-8), PBDG8-12, PBDG12-20, PBDG20-24 and PBDG8-20. Estimation of the heritability of body weight was carried out using the Mixed Model Methodology. The sire model and known genetic relationship in single trait analysis was carried out using the ASREML 3 statistical program. Estimation of heritabilities for the growth rates was done using Becker (1984) procedure. Estimates of genetic and phenotypic correlations were obtained using appropriate expressions involving the estimated variance components according to Becker (1984). Generally, the heritability (h2) estimates of body weight for all guinea fowls in this study were low (0.06 for BW36) to moderate (0.51 for BW32). Estimates of heritability for growth rates were medium (0.39 for PBDG4-8) to high (0.78 for PBDG8-12) except P8-20 which had a low heritability value (0.22). With respect to phenotypic correlations, the least coefficient of -0.007 was between BW0 and BW10 whereas the highest of 0.979 was between BW24 and BW28. The heritability estimates of body weight and growth rates were low to high i.e., 0.08-0.70 and 0.22-0.78, respectively. Body weight at two weeks of age served as an indicator for the early selection of guinea fowls based on body weight. It is recommended that the results obtained could be included in the breeding objectives of any upcoming guinea fowl improvement program.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Internal Parasites Associated with Dairy Cattle in Nyala City, South Darfur State, Sudan

Abdu Rahman Yahya Abobaker, El Ayis A. Abubaker

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 131-138

Helminthosis are one of the worlds most prevalent and economically essential parasitizes of human and domesticated animals. This study was conducted at Nyals city in South Darfur State during the years 2019-2020. The study was aiming at investigating gastrointestinal parasites in cross-breed dairy cattle reared in Nyala city. A questionnaire survey was done before collection of samples. A total of 110 faecal samples were collected from dairy cattle in Nyala city. Faecal samples were subjected for parasitological examination using Floatation and Sedimentation techniques. Faecal slides were examined under low power microscopy. Helminth eggs were detected in 65 (59.1%) faecal samples. 45 percent of the parasitic infestation cases were mixed cases (e.g. mixed Nematodes, and Trematodes and Coccidia spp.). Nematodes eggs were found in 24 (21.8%) samples, Trematodes eggs in  21(19.1%) samples and Coccidia spp. in 20 (18.2%) samples. 10 Paramphistomum spp. were detected and the prevalence of Paramphistomum spp. was 9.1%. 6 Schistoma heamtobium were detected and the prevalence of Schistoma heamtobium was 5.4%. 5 Fasciola gigantica were detected and the prevalence of Fasciola gigantica was 4.5%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on Physiological, Biochemical and Pathological Evolutions of Donkeys Affect by Gastrointestinal Trac Disturbances

A. I. A. Bahar, Siham E. Suliman, H. I. Seri, Tamour Elkhier, Mohammed Hamid

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 139-144

Aim: This study was for investigating causes, some clinical, pathological, physiological and biochemical parameters of donkeys affected by Gastrointestinal Tract Disturbances (GIT).

Study Design: Twenty donkeys were included in this study 12 GIT infected donkeys were isolated from all diseased donkeys that come to the Educational veterinary hospital of Nyala South Darfur State- Sudan according to the clinical signs of GIT-disturbance and 8 donkeys clinically normal as control group.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in Educational veterinary hospital of Nyala South Darfur State- Sudan, during the period from December 2019 to April 2021, Samples were collected from ill donkeys that come to the hospital. Those Samples were analyzed in University of Nyala, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Department of Physiology and Biochemistry.

Methodology: Case history, causes and clinical examination were taken to all donkeys under this study. Respiration rate, pulse rate, rectal temperature, and some biochemical values (total protein, albumin, globulin, creatinine, urea, triglyceride, phosphate, AST and LDH) were measured.

Results: Porridge, Leaves of beans, Water Mellon, Grain over feeding were found the main causes of GIT disturbance in donkeys, causes of some GIT disturbance of donkeys were unknown, respiration rate, pulse rate and rectal temperature were elevated, behavior of donkey infected by GIT disturbance changes were rolling, no desire to walk, petechial haemorrhage of eye mucus membrane, bilateral abdominal distension, all measured biochemical value were highly increased.

Conclusion: Most causes of GIT disturbance in donkeys were found somehow related to the food administration, behavioral changes, elevation of some physiological and biochemical parameters were registered in donkeys under this study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on Physiological, Biochemical and Pathological Evolutions of Donkeys Affect by Gastrointestinal Trac Disturbances

A. I. A. Bahar, Siham E. Suliman, H. I. Seri, Tamour Elkhier, Mohammed Hamid

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 139-144

Aim: This study was for investigating causes, some clinical, pathological, physiological and biochemical parameters of donkeys affected by Gastrointestinal Tract Disturbances (GIT).

Study Design: Twenty donkeys were included in this study 12 GIT infected donkeys were isolated from all diseased donkeys that come to the Educational veterinary hospital of Nyala South Darfur State- Sudan according to the clinical signs of GIT-disturbance and 8 donkeys clinically normal as control group.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in Educational veterinary hospital of Nyala South Darfur State- Sudan, during the period from December 2019 to April 2021, Samples were collected from ill donkeys that come to the hospital. Those Samples were analyzed in University of Nyala, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Department of Physiology and Biochemistry.

Methodology: Case history, causes and clinical examination were taken to all donkeys under this study. Respiration rate, pulse rate, rectal temperature, and some biochemical values (total protein, albumin, globulin, creatinine, urea, triglyceride, phosphate, AST and LDH) were measured.

Results: Porridge, Leaves of beans, Water Mellon, Grain over feeding were found the main causes of GIT disturbance in donkeys, causes of some GIT disturbance of donkeys were unknown, respiration rate, pulse rate and rectal temperature were elevated, behavior of donkey infected by GIT disturbance changes were rolling, no desire to walk, petechial haemorrhage of eye mucus membrane, bilateral abdominal distension, all measured biochemical value were highly increased.

Conclusion: Most causes of GIT disturbance in donkeys were found somehow related to the food administration, behavioral changes, elevation of some physiological and biochemical parameters were registered in donkeys under this study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance, Carcass Characteristic and Haematology of Broiler Chickens Managed on Alum Treated and Untreated Wood Shavings

A. A. Usman, T. S. Olugbemi, J. J. Omage, K. M. Aljameel

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 145-151

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of alum treated and untreated wood shaving on broiler chickens performance and carcass characteristic. A total of Two hundred and forty (240) day old Marshall Strain broiler chicks of mixed sexes were used for the study from the poultry unit of the Department of Animal Science teaching and research farm, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. The birds were fed on a common diet during this period and were subsequently weighed and randomly assigned to four treatment groups. The treatments were replicated three times with 20 birds per pen. They were housed under a deep litter system with 15kg wood shavings per pen in a completely randomised design. Aluminium sulphate (alum) was applied to the wood shavings by mixing it with alum thoroughly using hands covered with hand gloves. The rates of alum application was as follows: T1 control (normal wood shavings with no alum), T2 (5% alum by kg weight of wood shavings), T3 (10% alum by kg weight of wood shavings) and T4 (15% alum by kg weight of wood shavings). Data was collected on feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio was determined weekly. At the termination of the experiment (day 56), two birds from each pen having representative weights for the group (6 birds per Treatment) were selected for carcass characteristics. In results there was no significant (P>0.05) difference in all the parameters measured such as initial weight, daily weight gain, daily feed intake, daily water intake, final weight, Total weight gained, cost/kg gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR). The result showed a significant (P<0.05) difference in heart and liver weight among the treatments. However, there was no significant (P>0.05) difference among all the treatments in prime cuts and percent of other visceral organs. In conclusion the application of Alum to wood shavings did not improve performance of broiler chickens significantly.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Season on the Ovarian Biometry, Oocyte Yield and Quality in Buffaloes

Md. Enayet Kabir, Md. Saiful Islam, Falguni Dadok, Md. Rashedul Islam, Al-Nur Md. Iftekhar Rahman, Zannatul Naim

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 152-158

The present experiment was designed to study the effect of seasonal variations on ovarian biometry, ovarian surface visible follicle number, oocyte recovery rate, and quality of recovered oocytes in buffaloes. Ovaries were collected from slaughtered buffaloes during the winter and summer seasons. The size (length and width) and weight of each ovary were measured. Grossly visible follicles on the surface of the ovary were counted, aspirated and oocytes were retrieved and evaluated. The biometrical studies revealed that the length and weight of the right ovaries were significantly higher (p<0.05) during the winter than in the summer season. However, the effect of season on the length, width, and weight of left ovaries and ovaries with corpus luteum and without corpus luteum was non-significant. The average surface follicle count per ovary was significantly (p<0.05) higher in ovaries collected during winter season than in summer. Furthermore, a significantly higher (p<0.05) oocyte recovery rate was obtained from the ovaries collected during the winter season. Ovaries collected during the winter and summer season had a higher (p<0.05) proportion of grade-A and grade-D oocytes, respectively. The results indicated that summer can adversely affect the functional activity of the ovaries to produce follicles suitable to give a high incidence of good quality oocytes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Economic Impacts of Eight (8) Reasons for Seizure of Small Ruminant Meat at the Port-Bouët Slaughterhouse of the Autonomous District of Abidjan, Côte D'ivoire

Adama Coulibaly, Komissiri Dagnogo, Mamadou Dosso, Ouattara Salifou Gboko, Atchoumtcho Sara Coulibaly, Godi Henri Marius Biego, Adama Coulibaly

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 159-167

Aims: This study intends to contribute to the improvement of the quality of small ruminant meat produced at the Port-Bouët slaughterhouse in order to protect consumer health and facilitate the implementation of prophylactic measures.

Study Design: This was a retrospective study conducted at the Port-Bouët slaughterhouse on data produced from July, 2019 to June, 2020 on small ruminants received.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted from January to May 2021 at the Port-Bouët slaughterhouse which receives small ruminants (sheep, goats) from neighboring countries and Ivorian farms. The animals slaughtered in this slaughterhouse come from the small ruminant market at the Port-Bouet slaughterhouse.

Methodology: Data were collected from the digital database of the operating system called "Système de Gestion et d'Identification des Animaux à Port-Bouët" (SYGIAP 3.1). These data concerned the origin of the animals, the number of animals slaughtered, the type of seizure, the reasons for the seizures and the organs seized.

Results: The results indicate that the slaughterhouse is supplied with small ruminants by four (4) countries with proportions of 68.14% (Burkina Faso), 29.29% (Mali), 2.44% (Côte d'Ivoire) and 0.13% (Niger).The proportion of animals slaughtered at the slaughterhouse is 31% and the prevalences of the causes for carcass condemnation are 0.35% (Cysticercosis), 3.32% (echinococcosis), 5.07% (hepatic cirrhosis), 5.46% (tuberculosis), 9.43% (abscesses), 13.25% (congestion), 28.97% (distomatosis), and 34.15% (hemosiderosis). For the organs seized, the proportions are 0.05% (3 seizures), 0.06% (4 seizures), 0.18% (12 seizures), 0.27% (18 seizures), 0.32% (21 seizures), 23.01% (1,517 seizures) and 76.11% (5,019 seizures) for intestines, muscle, spleen, kidney, heart, lung and liver respectively ; no total seizure (seizure of the whole carcass) is observed. Financial losses linked to all the seizures amount to 8,074,000 XOF.

Conclusion: The Port-Bouët slaughterhouse should report the information obtained during inspections to enable the implementation of prophylactic measures from the origin of the animals in order to reduce the financial and sanitary impacts of zoonoses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Reduced Albendazole Efficacy in Goats Naturally Infected with Strongyle Nematodes in Dagrase Area, South Darfur State, Sudan

Khalid M. Mohammedsalih, Abdoelnaim I. Y. Ibrahim, Fathel-Rahman Juma, Abdalhakaim A. H. Abdalmalaik, Shamsaldeen Ibrahim Saeed, Mohammed Hamid, Ahmed Bashar

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 168-176

Introduction: Understanding the extend of benzimidazole resistance is a core step to adopting the correct strategies for control. In Sudan, benzimidazole resistance was recently reported in cattle and goats in South Darfur. This study aimed to collect additional data regarding albendazole efficacy.

Methods: In the rainy season, 100 goats, male and female of different age groups, were screened for the presence of gastrointestinal helminth infections in Dagrase, South Darfur State, Sudan. Goats shedding >150 nematode eggs per gram faeces were selected for in vivo trial and grouped into control (n=15) and a treated group (n=70), that were individually received an oral dose of 10 mg/kg body weight albendazole. The in vitro egg hatch test was performed using thiabendazole. 

Results: Using Mini-FLOTAC for egg count determination, 95% of the screened goats were infected with gastrointestinal helminths, and all positive animals were shedding eggs of strongyle nematodes with 92% of strongyle larvae representing Haemonchus spp. Strongyles, Strongyloides papillosus and Skrjabinema ovis were the nematode eggs identified under the microscope. Paired and unpaired faecal egg count reduction test calculations detected reductions of 80/81% and 74/73% with samples taken at days 8 and 14 after albendazole treatment, respectively. Albendazole was inconclusive against Strongyloides papillosus. Haemonchus spp. third stage larvae were the only nematode present after treatment based on coprocultures. The ED50 in the egg hatch test was 0.12 µg/ml thiabendazole. There is a reduction in albendazole efficacy in goats in Dagrase, and consequently the development of benzimidazole resistance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infection of Cattle and Goat Slaughtered at Akwanga Abattoir Nasarawa State, Nigeria

A. I. Alaku, Sani Danladi, J. N. Emmanuel

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 196-201

Gastrointestinal parasitic diseases remain a constraint to cattle and goat production industries in developing countries. An abattoir survey was carried out to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in slaughtered cattle and goat in Akwanga abattoir in Nasarawa State Nigeria. A total of 120 feacal samples of 60 cattle’s and 60 goats. Formal ether concentration technique was used for sample analysis and examined microscopically. The data obtained were statistically analysed using simple percentages to determine the prevalence rate in both the cattle and goat. The result showed that 31 (25.83%) cattle and 28(23.33% of goats were  infected with gastrointestinal helminths. The prevalence rate were higher in cattle than the goats. There was no significant different at (P<0.05). Among the cattle, the helminths identified were Faciola gigantica (9.35%), Schistosoma bovis (13%), Taenia saginata (16.12%), Hymenolepis dimunuta (9.67%), Haemonchus spp (13%), Taxocara spp (3.21%), Trichuris spp (3.22%) and Ascaris spp (3.22%). The most prevalent helminth was Faciola gigantica (19.35%), followed by Taenia saginata (16.12%) respectively. The helminths identified from goat on the other hand are Entamoeba spp (7.14%), Schistosoma spp (3.57%) Monezia spp (3.57%), Hymenolepis spp (7.14%), Schistosoma spp (3.57%) Monezia spp (3.57%), Hymenolepis spp (7.14%), Trichuris spp (17.85%) Stronglyloide spp (10.21%) and Toxocara spp (3.57%). The most prevalent helminth was Trichuris spp and Fasciola spp (17.85%) followed by Taenia spp (14.28%), while Toxocara spp, Schistosoma spp, Monezia spp with (3.57%) was the least dorminant.

The result showed a moderately high prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths during the study. This findings reflect a growing burden of gastrointestinal helminths infections at abottior level. Therefore, good management and strategic deworming proper feeding and good sanitation  need to be applied to reduce the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and their risk factor to lessen economic loss caused by the parasites.

Open Access Short communication

G and P Genotypes of Group A Rotavirus in Diarrheic Calves in Costa Rica

José Bonilla-Espinoza, Lurys Bourdett-Stanziola, Carlos Jiménez

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 177-182

Rotavirus infections are the most common causes of infectious diarrhea in young children and animals worldwide. We performed a genotyping of rotavirus strains by RT-PCR for G (VP7) and P (VP4), in diarrhea samples from calves, in several locations in Costa Rica. Combinations of genotypes G (VP7) and P (VP4) were identified in cattle: 4 (26%) corresponding to G8 P [11], 4 (24%) to G6P [11], 3 (19%) to G8P [7], 2 (13%) to G10P [1], 3 (19%) to G10P [11], and 1 (6%) to G8P [1] and mixed infections. This research represents the first report of bovine rotavirus strains (calves) in Costa Rica and in the Central American region.

Open Access Systematic Review Article

Cystic Echinococcosis among Livestock in Arabia Peninsula: A Systemic Review and Meta-analysis

I. R. M. Al-Shaibani, A. M. A. Al-Khadher, A. G. A. Al-Yahiri

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 183-195

Cystic echinococcosis/cystic hydatidosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the larval stages of taeniid cestodes of the genus Echinococcus. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of echinococcosis among the livestock in Arabia Peninsula countries including Yemen, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirate (UAE), Oman, Kuwait, Bahrain and Qatar. Literature searches were performed on PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus and Google scholar for English language articles from June 2000 to June 2021. The prevalence of cystic echinococcosis was estimated using the random effects meta-analysis. Of the 4477 records identified in the electronic databases, 713 articles met eligibility criteria. Out of 713, 19 studies addressed a total number of 1132538 individuals from the whole livestock were subjected to meta-analysis. The results revealed that, the pooled prevalence of cystic echinococcosis in livestock at Arabia peninsula countries was 13.4% (95% CI 10.8 –16.0) with high level of heterogeneity (I2 = 100%, P < 0.001). Based on countries, subgroup meta-analysis demonstrated that, the pooled prevalence rates were 10.5 %( 95% Cl 6.9-14), 9.3% (95% Cl 5.-13.5) and 34.1% (95% Cl 9.9-58.1) in S. Arabia, Yemen and Oman respectively. No publications on prevalence of cystic echinococcosis in livestock in UAE, Kuwait, Bahrain and Qatar were found. The Cattle had the highest prevalence rate 74.1(95% Cl, 0 -15-1.096) of infection; while, goats had the lowest prevalence rate 4.7% (95% Cl, 4.2-13.6). Significant differences have been observed (P < 0.001) among different animals' species. In the term of diagnostic tool, the prevalence rates were 9.7% (95% Cl: 6.9-12.4), 14.7% (95%Cl: 13.5.-16.0) and 79.0% (95% Cl: 74.084.0) for post mortem inspection, serological and Haemagglutination & Molecular assays respectively. Significant differences were observed (P < 0.001) among prevalence rates of different diagnostic techniques used. In conclusion, the results showed that, cystic echinococcosis is prevalent among livestock in Arabia Peninsula countries. Given to the importance of cystic echinococcosis on health of domestic animals industry, the results of this study could be valuable in developing strategies for prevention and control of the cystic echinococcosis in livestock.