Open Access Case study

Study on Physiological and Biochemical Evalutions of Horses Affected by Gastrointestinal Tract Disturbances

A. I. A. Bahar, Siham E. Suliman, H. I. Seri, Selma Elmalieh Abdalla, Hidaia Zolain, Tamour Elkhier

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 13-19

Aim: This study was carried out to investigate causes, signs, some Physiological and Biochemical Parameters, and controlling of pain in Horse Affected by Gastrointestinal Tract Disturbances.

Study Design: The number of 66 horses were used in this study. The horses were divided into two groups. Group I consist of (50 horses) showing signs of digestive system (GIT) disturbances, group II consist of (16 horses) showing normal clinical signs of digestive and used as control group.

Place and Duration of Study: Sample collection: Nyala south Darfur state – Sudan, and sample analysis: University of Nyala Faculty of veterinary science, department of physiology and biochemistry, Nyala –Sudan between December 2019 and April 2021.

Methodology: the case history and clinical examination was done to all , surveyed animals, the physiological parameters (respiratory rate, pulse rates, rectal temperature, eye mucous membrane colour) and biochemical parameters (plasma total protein, albumin, urea, creatinine, triecylglyceride, Creatinine, LDH,ALP,ALT, phosphate) were examined.

Results: Over feeding of bean leaves was the most common cause of GIT Disturbance, followed by over feeding of grain, clove, unknown causes, natural grazing, Babesiosis, over drinking of water (Table,1). Some cases showed signs of colic such as flank watching, strechining of the belly, rolling, and running and no signs of pain was noticed in other cases (Table,2) Nefopam injection was found better than Diclofenac Sodium in controlling of colicky horses whereas Respiration rate, puls rate, and rectal temperature were significantly increased in horses affected by GIT-Disturbances( tale,3), in addition to increasing of total Protein, Albumin, Globulin,Urea, Creatinine, Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) and Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), but no significant changes in Triglyceride and phosphate were noticed (Table,4).

Conclusion: Causes of equine gastro intestinal disturbance are variable but most of them are related to the management. This study found that respiration rate and pulse rate in addition to rectal temperature were increased due to equine gastro-intestinal disturbance in addition  to behavioral changes were recorded in some cases, so non-steroidal anti-inflammatory is needed for controlling pain, we recommend using of Nefopam injection in horses with severe pain. When usage of other drugs are necessary such as anti-biotic attention must be paid to the effect    of that drugs on the liver and kidney in addition to administration of intra-venous infusions to return urea and creatinine to their normal level and to rehydrated the                                        infected horse.

Open Access Short Research Article

Genetic Characterization of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) at the Centro de Vida Silvestre San Bartolome Yucatan, Mexico

Montes-Perez Ruben, Arellano-Morin Jose, Villegas-Pérez Sandra, Segura-Correa Jose

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 36-44

Aims: Estimate the inbreeding rate, evaluate nucleotide divergences between deer in a captive population, and design a crossbreeding scheme to maintain genetic diversity.

Study design: A descriptive study was carried out to characterize the genetic divergence status of a captive population of deer, under uncontrolled mating conditions, without genealogical data.

Place and duration of Study: The deer under study were confined to the Centro de Vida Silvestre San Bartolomé in the locality of Tekax, Yucatan Mexico. The study was carried out from May 2006 to April 2007.

Methodology: Quantitative genetic models were applied to characterize the population of 39 adult deer (Odocoileus virginianus) confined in a 3 Ha pen. Blood samples were collected to apply the random amplification technique of polymorphic DNA fragments (RAPD). Two DNA primers were used in the RAPD to generate the DNA polymorphic band patterns. From the band pattern of each specimen, molecular analysis software was applied to estimate the nucleotide divergences between the analyzed units and, finally, dendrograms were generated using the UPGMA technique to group the animals according to their nucleotide divergences in the amount of nucleotides substituted per 100 bases. Groups of breeding animals were designed based on their divergences in the dendrograms.

Results: The effective population number was 19 and the expected inbreeding rate per generation was 0.0263 (2.63%). Eighteen specimens did not share DNA bands. The dendrograms of genetic divergences of each primer showed 11 specimens that appear in both dendrograms. The genetic divergences between the specimens were distributed from 0.086 to 2.62 substituted nucleotides in relation to 100 bases in both dendrograms. Breeding groups were designed for three generations with animals that have the greatest genetic divergence among them.

Conclusion: The RAPD used allowed the identification of deer that did not share bands within the analyzed population, while the other members presented different values of nucleotide divergences. From the highest values ​​of nucleotide divergences, groups of reproducers were restructured to stop the increase in inbreeding, even when there are no genealogical data.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dietary Gum Arabic Alleviates Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Liver Fibrosis in Wistar Rats

Mohammed Hamid, Yassin Abdulrahim, Abdelnasir A, Khalid M. Mohammedsalih, Nagmeldin A. Omer, Juma Ahamed Abaker, Hassan M. A. Hejair, Tamour Elkhier, Tagwa Norain Mahmoud, Hidaia B. Zolain

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 1-12

Aims: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of Gum Arabic (GA) on liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in Wistar rats.

Methods: Rats were randomly divided into three groups (each group: n=8). Group 1 served as untreated control with just 2 ml/kg of olive oil. Group 2 administered only by intraperitoneal (I.P) injection of CCl4 dissolved in olive oil at a dose of 2 ml/kg body weight twice a week for 7 week. Group 3 administered in additional to CCl4 a basal diets containing GA (5%).

Results: The outcomes of the current study exhibited that, CCl4 elevated the serum levels of liver enzymes, malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydroxyproline. In addition, CCl4 increase the expression of  inflammatory cytokines TLR-4, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-β1and MCP-1or fibrotic markers cytokines; TGFβ1and α-SMA while decreasing the activity of T-AOC, SOD and GSH-Px . Administration of GA effectively attenuated these changes, in additional to promotion of antioxidants enzymes and reducing the collagen deposition and hepatocytes necrosis.

Conclusion: These results suggested that GA has antifibrotic properties and could be used as potential dietary agent against CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Alpha-Lipoic Acid on Female Gamecocks Productive Parameters and Cardiac Mitochondrial Biogenesis

Brissa Preza-Montiel, Laura González-Dávalos, Enrique Piña-Garza, Alfredo Varela-Echavarría, Armando Shimada-Miyasaka, Ofelia Mora-Izaguirre

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 20-29

Background: Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is an endogenous antioxidant responsible for the removal of free radicals in all cell types. In farm animals, its use improves weight gain, energy metabolism, and the response to oxidative stress. The purpose of this work was to measure the effect of ALA on productive variables and cardiac mitochondrial biogenesis in female fighting cocks (Gallus gallus).

Methodology: Two groups of 38 4-week-old chicks received either 0 or 40 ppm of ALA in food for 9 weeks. Different parts of the carcass, additional to the liver and the heart, were weighed, the antioxidant capacity in serum was measured, and the expression of the mRNAs for five genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis was quantified in the heart using real-time PCR.

Results: No differences were observed in growth performance between the two groups (P > .1). The carcass yield was higher in the birds that consumed ALA (69 vs. 65%; P < .05); however, no significant differences were observed in the breast, leg with thigh, wing, and liver yields (P > .1). Heart performance was higher (0.71%) in birds treated with ALA compared to the control group (0.67%; P < .05), and the total antioxidant capacity (599.71 vs. 554.64 UT, P < .05) was improved with ALA. The expression of the mRNAs for NRF1, NRF2, PGC1-α, MT-ND1, and SIRT1 was increased in the heart of the birds treated with ALA (P < .05), which may suggest that there was an increase in cardiac mitochondrial biogenesis.

Conclusion: The addition of ALA to the diet of fighting cocks could improve their strength during a fight; however, further testing is required to determine gender-specific effects of ALA supplementation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation of Escherichia Coli from Clinical Mastitis Cases of Cows in Nangarhar Province

Nageebullah Zafari, Zabihullah Afghan Nazari, Abdul Malik Himat, Babrak Karwand, Raz Mohammad Safi, Zahidullah Salarzai, Faizanullah Abozar, Enayatullah Hamdard

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 30-35

Mastitis is a common inflammation of the mammary glands caused by a variety of microbial and non-microbial factors and one of the major agent is Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria. The disease affects lactating cow’s production and bear economic consequences. The purpose of this study is to isolate E. coli bacteria from infected mammary glands and the prevalence of E. coli mastitis in lactating cows in Nangarhar province. In total 50 cow milk samples were collected from different districts of veterinary clinics, villages and dairy farms of Nangarhar province. The samples were examined with gram staining and catalase tests for diagnosis. The results revealed that 21 (42%) cows were infected with E. coli and 29 (58%) were infected by various susceptible microorganisms. In summary, considering the massive number of cultured E. coli bacteria, the research suggested that E. coli infection is highly ranked in Nangarhar different areas and could cause economic losses in cow bio productions.