Open Access Case study

Effect of Feeding Diet with Paddy (Oryza sativa) and Redworm (Perionyx excavates) on Growth Performance of Free Range Go Cong Chicken

Quach Thi Thanh Tam, Vo Thi Ngoc Bich, Do Thi Xuan, Bui Thi Minh Dieu

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 29-34

Aims: This present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding various levels of paddy with redworms (Perionyx excavates) on growth performance of Go Cong chicken under free range system of rearing.

Experimental design: A total of 250 free range Go Cong chicken from 5 to 14 week of age with five treatments including control treatment consists of 100% self-mixed feed and 3 treatments with paddy and redworm levels 20% (TQ20); 25% (TQ25); 30% (TQ30) respectively; and treatment with 100% paddy (LUA) were included in the study.

Place and duration of study: The study was conducted in Thanh My hamlet, Thanh Duc commune, Long Ho district, Vinh Long province.

Methodology: All chickens included were cared under uniform managemental conditions. Every morning, cleaning the trough, weighing the leftover food in the trough and feeding the chickens with new food. Food and water was ensured to be enough in the trough.

Growth targets: Body weight, body weight gain, average feed consumption and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were collected for growth targets in each experimental period.

Results: At 14 weeks of age, the heaviest weight was found in the control treatment (1299.40g) similar to TQ25; and the lowest one was LUA treatment (966.00g) (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in feed intake between all treatments (P>0.05).  At 5 to 14 weeks of age stage, the lowest value of FCR was revealed in the control (3.73), similar to TQ25 treatment and was statistically significant different from LUA treatment (5.56)(P <0.05). The livability of 4 treatments TQ20, TQ25, TQ 30% and control were 100% while LUA was 95% of livability.

Conclusion: In summary, the feeding treatment containing 25% Perionyx excavatus and 75% paddy revealed the best results and can be suggested to apply for raising free range chicken

Open Access Minireview Article

Overview: Q Fever and Potential Emerging Infection in Ruminants and Risk of Zoonotic Transmission

M. A. Roshan Priyantha

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 8-14

Q fever is an economically significant disease in ruminants causing a range of reproductive disorders worldwide. The disease has not been reported in ruminants while low seroprevalence was reported among humans in Sri Lanka. Since factors associated with antibody against Coxiella burnetti in human has not been found and the association between human and animal has not been evaluated. However, importation of live animals may or may not be considered as a potential risk factor therefore, extensive studies are encouraged.

Q fever is caused by obligate intracellular parasite Coxiella burnetti which is an aerobic, Gram-negative organism, and highly resistant bacterium. The bacterium may infect mammals, birds, and arthropods. Q fever has been reported slightly high prevalence in cattle than in small ruminants, the disease is often considered a a neglected disease in differential diagnosis in the clinics and laboratories. Q fever is mainly associated with reproductive disorders such as abortion, metritis, weak offspring, and sterility. The organism also causes mastitis in cows. The risk of transmission is highly dependent upon the prevalence of shedders in a herd and intensity of shedding the organism by animals. Although herd size and composition of herd has been identified as no effect on epidemiology, herd density is considered an important factor in transmission of the disease within the herd. Coxiella burnetti is shed through birth products, vaginal fluids, urine, feces, and milk just after calving or parturition. The Q fever has been reported in most of the countries in the World. High seroprevalence was reported in Belgium where prevalence was 56.7%. The prevalence of Q fever at individual and herd level in France was 20% to 38% in cattle and 15% and 25% in sheep and goats respectively. In the USA, herd prevalence of Q fever was varied from 26.3% to 94.3% in 2002 and 16.7 and 5.4% in 2011, Asia. Cats are considered as the main source of human infection comparing to dogs. The bacterium had been isolated from feline vaginal mucosa and associated with reproductive disorders including abortion in cats. Inhalation has been identified as the main source of transmission both in animals and humans, infective material is infected through inhalation. Ingestion and vertical transmission have been also suspected. The organism is considered to be highly resistant in a farming environment for 2 years of post-infection.

The infection is often asymptomatic in humans and both acute and chronic forms have been reported flu-like infection, pneumonia, and hepatitis were reported common and chronic fatigues, endocarditis, pneumonia, abortion, stillbirth, and premature deliveries, were also reported. Most clinical cases reported were among the immunocompromised population, abattoir workers, farmworkers, and people who have a close association with animals. Also, a good prognosis has been observed in humans when treatment was started at early stage. High seroprevalence was reported among veterinarians and vaccination with Phase I vaccine was proven results on developing clinical disease, although side effects were reported on people who exposed to the organism previously. Fluoroquinolone was recommended only for meningoencephalitis and other human cases were treated with doxycycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and hydroxychloroquine.

Both humoral and cell-mediated immune mechanisms were recognized as an essential tool to protect against Coxiella burnetti infection in animals and humans. Passive actin-dependent phagocytosis in phagocyte cells and active zipper mechanism in nonphagocytic cells have been described in pathogenesis. The bacterium can be detected in different clinical samples such as milk, vaginal mucous, feces, urine, semen, birth fluid, and placental membranes. Identification of the bacterium can be done by conventional bacteriological methods; molecular methods and detection of antibodies were done by serological methods such as ELISA. Identification of the organism and serological diagnosis in bulk milk tanks is the most practical way of diagnosis in ruminants. Serological diagnosis is considered the gold standard of diagnosis of Q fever in humans. Antibiotics, vaccination, and a combination of these two are the alternative to control clinical disease in cattle. A few vaccine types have been recognized such as inactivated PI or PII, attenuated PII Coxiella burnetii. Chloroform: methanol residue fraction of Nine Mile phase I killed vaccine and used to control the excretion of the organism in sheep/goat and cattle.

Open Access Minireview Article

Overview: Lowsonia Intracellularis in Pig and Horse

M. A. R. Priyantha, G. I. S. Perera

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 15-21

Lowsonia intracellularis is a Gram negative, obligate intra cellular, motile, anaerobic organism which resides in apical cytoplasm of enterocytes. It is one of the economically important pathogens in current pork industry in the world. Lowsonia intracellularis is an important pathogen in equine, also been reported in rodents, dogs, cats, foxes, sheep, deer, hamsters, rabbits, opossums, skunks, mice, coyote deer, ferrets, ostriches, and non-human primates.

Feco-oral rout of transmission occurs common Lowsonia intracellularis in livestock, companion animals and wild animals under natural conditions. Shedding of the organism is commenced on 7 days of post inoculation and excretion was observed until 12 weeks in infected animals. The clinical infection is called as porcine proliferative enteropathy (PPE) or |equine proliferative enteropathy (EPE) in pigs and horses respectively. The disease is characterized by thickening of mucosae in distal small intestine and proximal part of large intestine. Hyperplasia in enterocytes were the commonest histopathological finding in infected animals.  Determination of Lowsonia intracellularis in feaces by qPCR and serological diagnosis are practised common in swine industry. Hypoproteinemia and hypoalbuminemia were significant finding in clinical pathology around 4 weeks before the onset of clinical infection. Gross pathology, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry are used widely in confirmatory diagnosis after the post-mortem examination.

Antimicrobial therapy and vaccination are two main methodology to control the infections in pigs and foals. Live attenuated and killed whole cell vaccine are widely used against Lowsonia intracellularis in pigs. Both cell mediated and humoral immune responses are required to eliminate the organism from body of animals. Minimizing stress factors, good bio security, continue screening of herd in endemic zones, early recognition of the disease are the important strategies in minimizing the clinical emergence of Lowsonia intracellularis. Screening, identification and culling of infected animals are recommended as part of the programme on minimizing unnecessary health burden in the industry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Resistance in Pasteurella multocida Type B and Mannheimia haemolytica Isolates in Cattle and Buffaloes

M. A. R. Priyantha, G. I. S. Perera, Nayani Medagama, D. M. S. B. Dissanayake, P. S. De Alwis, M. I. Wijemuni, N. G. N. Samarakoon, P. S. Fernando

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 1-7

Hemorrhagic septicemia is a fatal septicemic disease in cattle and buffaloes in tropical countries. Young animals were more susceptible, and buffaloes were shown high percentage of mortality than cattle. Mannheimia haemolytica was described as an opportunistic pathogen in cattle and buffaloes and concurrent infection were also reported with primary other diseases. Only few studies were published in the country on these two bacterial organisms, information on antimicrobials resistance was limited in local herds. Lack of clinical breakpoints or host specific clinical breakpoints has been identified as a limiting factor to identify the phenotypic resistance. The objective of the study was to confirm the Pasteurella multocida isolates which received from clinical cases of hemorrhagic septicemia in the country. The second objectives were to determine phenotypic antimicrobial resistance in Pasteurella multocida clinical isolates and to compare with phenotypic antimicrobial; resistant phenotypes of Mannheimia haemolytica.

The clinical isolates of Pasteurella multocida were received (n=29) from the regional laboratories in the country from 2017-2019. Manhenimia hemolytica (n=49) was collected from our laboratory collection which were sampled from cattle and buffaloes from dry zone of the country previously. The resistance percentage of were Pasteurella multocida 72% and 29% for ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime. Resistance of cefotaxime was shown in Pasteurella multocida and none in Manhenimia hemolytica. Resistances to ciprofloxacin were shown high in Pasteurella multocida and low in Manhenimia hemolytica. Resistance to amoxicillin and clavulanic acid and tetracycline were found in both organisms. Phenotypic antimicrobial resistance was reported low in Pasteurella multocida and Manhenimia hemolytica in cattle and buffaloes. In conclusion, usage of sulfamethoxazole and quinolone group of antimicrobials for the pasteurellosis such as enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin may have negative impact due to the high frequency of resistance observed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Egg Shell Meal as Mineral Source for West African Dwarf Goats

J. S. Luka, U. Okpanachi, B. O. James, O. J. Williams, G. A. C. Okpanachi

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 22-28

Aims: The studies on eggshell meal (ESM) as mineral source for West African Dwarf (WAD) goats was carried out the determine the effects of non-conventional mineral source on WAD goats.

Study design: The goats were randomly allotted to 4 dietary treatments, having five replicates with goats on T1 receiving the control diet (0%) while those on T2, T3 and T4 received 0.5%, 1.00% and 1.50% levels of ESM inclusion, respectively in aa completely randomized design (CRD).

Place and duration of study: The experiment was carried out at the Department of Animal Production, Kogi State University, Anyigba, Nigeria, between August and September, 2015.

Methodology: Twenty (20) WAD goats with an average body weight of 5.84kg were used for this experiment. Eggshell was obtained from food vendors (mashayi), and sterilized with hot water without removing the shell membranes. It was then sun- dried and milled. The forage (Northern gamba grass) were harvested fresh and allowed to wilt before feeding it to the goats. Parameters such as performance, haematology and serum biochemistry were assessed.

Results: Apart from the mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) which was significantly affected (P<0.05) by the inclusion of ESM, none of the other haematological, performance and serum biochemical parameters were significantly affected. For MCH, T1 and T2 were significantly higher than T3 and T4.

Conclusion: the study showed that the inclusion of ESM did not adversely affect the performance, haematology and serum biochemistry of WAD goats. The use of ESM is strongly recommended as a source of mineral (especially calcium) for WAD goats. Egg shell meal is cheap and readily available. When it is harnessed in this way, it will not constitute environmental pollution but will rather reduce the cost of livestock feed since it is freely available, unlike bone meal which is expensive because of its high demand.