Open Access Original Research Article

The Organogenesis of Camel (Camelus dromedarius) Adrenal Gland and its Relation to the Mesonephros, Metanephros and Gonads Topography and Histogensis Study

Hidaia B. Zolain, Dafaalla I. Osman

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 1-20

The  aim  of  the  present  study  are  to  investigate the topography and histology of the adrenal gland during the early stages of development. This  study was conducted in 33 camel fetuses collected from different slaughter houses  in Sudan, then standards anatomical and histological studied were used to analysis theses amples. The primordium of the adrenal gland appeared in the intermediate mesoderm lateral to the aorta at 2.8 cm CVRL(Crown Vertebral Rump Length) foetus (73 days of age). The neuroblasts migrated from the neural crest through the dorsal mesentery and were found inside the capsule and their migration reached the maximum at 22 cm CVRL foetus (126 days of age).  The left adrenal gland was situated more caudal than the right adrenal gland. In conclusion, the cell of foetal zone was the first zone to be differentiated, the cells of zona fasiculata were formed as early as 7 cm CVRL foetus, then the cells of the zona glomerulosa were formed the medulla was larger than the cortex and the neuroblasts were began to be differentiated. The development of the camel foetal adrenal gland in general is similar to the development of the foetal adrenal glands of other domestic animals but with special features of its own.

Open Access Original Research Article

Using Extracts from Odor-transmitting Gland of Civet as Fixative Substance in Fragrance

Le Huy Hai, Le Mai Xuan Truc, Nguyen Quoc Trung

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 28-35

Aim and Objectives: Civet with the scientific name Viverricula indica was found in Southeast Asia, Vietnam. The Civet has an odor-transmitting gland from the musk bag. The Civet musk sac is in the abdomen, about 2 cm in front of the scrotum and in front of the penis. In the field of aromatherapy, Civet musk is a precious fixative that has been researched and widely used. In Vietnam, there are very few studies about the usage of Civet musk. Therefore, our goal in this paper was to study musk from Civet and use it as a fixative in the aroma.

Materials and Methods: Material has been used to separate the odor-transmitting gland from the Civet is in Dak Nong, Vietnam. The musk was fabricated into musk Civet absolute by means of 96% alcohol impregnation and then distillation to remove solvents at low pressure. The fragrance was diluted with solvents to evaluate the scent based on the sensory for odor evaluation.

Results: The results indicated that the fixative ability of Civet absolute was better than traditional artificial musk such as musk ambrette, musk xylol, musk ketone.

Conclusion: This research has proven that musk from Civet in Vietnam is a very good fixative.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Vitamins C and E on Semen Motility and Viability in Chilled Semen of Nigerian Indigenous Turkey Toms (Meleagris gallopavo)

W. O. Echekwu, J. M. Madu, G. I. Opaluwa Kuzayed, E. S. Idoga, I. O. Suleiman, D.S. Bunjah Umar, O. M. Akinsola

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 36-43

Oxidative stress has been established as a major cause of semen deterioration during in-vitro storage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementing the diluents of turkey semen with antioxidant vitamins C, E and a combination of vitamin C and E on semen motility and viability. Twenty healthy turkey toms aged 37-38 weeks with an average weight of 7±0.3kg were used for this study. The toms were randomly placed into four groups (T0, T1, T2 and T3) of five toms. Semen was collected bi-weekly from the turkey toms within the groups using abdominal massage method. Semen collected from individual turkey toms within each group were pooled, evaluated and extended with egg yolk citrate diluent containing no antioxidant (T0), 4 mg/ml Vitamin C (T1), 8 mg/ml Vitamin E (T2) and 4 mg/ml Vitamin C + 8 mg/ml Vitamin E (T3). The extended semen were packaged into biju bottles and stored at 40C for 48 hours. Semen   motility and viability, were assessed at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24 and 48 hours post dilution and storage at 40C.   The motility and viability of the diluted semen decreased across the group with increase in storage time irrespective of the antioxidants added. T2 gave a better motility (55±2.8 %), viability (41.3± 1.5%) over a 24 hour period. The result from this study showed that supplementation of the diluents of turkey semen with antioxidants resulted in significant (p <0.05) improvement in motility and viability. Vitamin E recorded a better result in relation to motility and viability. It can be concluded that the supplementation of diluents of turkey semen with antioxidant Vitamin C and E improves the shelf-live and quality of turkey semen during in-vitro storage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Different Cryoprotocols and Strains on the Sperm Viability of FUNAAB Alpha Chickens

Lois Chidinma Ndubuisi-Ogbonna, James O. Daramola, Adeyinka Oye Akintunde, Abdur-Rahman Abdullah, Mathew Wheto, Osagie John Afodu

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 44-54

Semen preservation is an essential tool used for a successful application of artificial insemination in livestock industry. Studies on semen quality characteristics on poultry breeds and strains after cryopreservation have been carried out but none has been reported for Nigeria FUNAAB alpha chickens. Three studies were carried out to evaluate the different cryoprotocols on viability of cryopreserved spermatozoa of FUNAAB alpha chickens.

Thirty cocks 25-30 weeks old of normal feather, naked neck and frizzle feather of FUNAAB alpha chickens were used for this experiment. The semen samples were diluted in Tris-based extender. The semen samples were divided into 2 parts. One part washed with normal saline water by centrifuging at 500xg once for 5 minutes in order to remove seminal plasma while the second part was unwashed. Washed and unwashed semen samples were cryopreserved using slow and rapid cryoprotocols, thereafter samples were evaluated for sperm viability. The experiment was laid out in 3x2x2 factorial arrangement. Data obtained were subjected to two-way ANOVA. Higher (p<0.05) motility was observed in washed spermatozoa from Frizzled Feather (FF) subjected to slow freezing (SF) compared to others strains either washed or unwashed, SF or RF protocols. Lower (p<0.05) motility of washed spermatozoa from Normal Feather (NF), Naked Neck (NN) and Frizzled Feather (FF) subjected to rapid freezing (RF) were comparable with washed spermatozoa from NN and unwashed NN subjected to SF and RF. Results for livability, acrosome integrity, seminal Leukocytes and MDA concentration were comparable (p>0.05) for unwashed and washed spermatozoa from NN, NF and FF, subjected to slow and rapid freezing cryoprotocols.

The study concluded that slow and rapid freezing cryoprotocols had a deleterious effect on the spermatozoa of NF, NN, FF and removal of seminal plasma through centrifugation did not improve the viability of the spermatozoa.

Open Access Review Article

Pharmacological Properties and Zootechnical uses of Acalypha ciliata Forssk (Euphorbiaceae), used in Traditional Beninese Medicine: Bibliographic Synthesis

Akouavi C. C. Adoho, Pascal A. Olounlade, Erick V. B. Azando, Sylvie M. Hounzangbe-Adote, Armand B. Gbangboche

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 21-27

Aims: to highlight the pharmacological importance of Acalypha ciliata Forssk, based on pharmacological properties, phytochemical data, toxicological data and zootechnical performance.

Study Design:  Mention the design of the study here.

Place and Duration of Study: Biochemistry and Pharmacognosy Division, Research Unit in Zootechnics and Breeding Systems, Laboratory of Animal and Fisheries Sciences, National University of Agriculture between October 2020 and February 2021.

Methodology: Extensive literature review was conducted by targeting scientific databases such as PubMed and Google Scholar, with appropriate keywords such as '' Acalypha ciliata Forssk'', '' chemical composition of Acalypha ciliata Forssk'', '' properties of Acalypha ciliata Forssk'' and others. Boolean operators ''AND'', ''OR'' and ''NOT'' were used to optimize and refine the search.

Results:  there is very little pharmacological, phytochemical and toxicological data on Acalypha ciliata Forssk. The available scientific data reported its antimalarial, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal and larvicidal properties. These interesting activities can be explained by the identified secondary metabolites including flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, anthraquinones, resins and glycosides, identified in the whole plant. Acalypha ciliata Forssk represents a plant still little explored

Conclusion:  Pharmacological work is necessary to justify all its traditional uses and to promote a good valorization of the species.