Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Parasites in Sheep and Goats of Bui and Donga-Mantung Divisions of the North West Region of Cameroon

Mbong Erica Malla, Vincent Khan Payne, Yamssi Cedric, Noumedem Anangmo Christelle Nadia, Megwi Leonelle, Matsinkou Rosine

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 1-15

Background: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, intensity of infection and management systems associated with gastrointestinal parasites in small ruminants (sheep and goats) from 12 villages in the Bui and Donga-Mantung Divisions for a period of one year.

Methods: A total of 704 stool samples were collected from 321 sheep (153 males and 168 females) and 383 goats (189 males and 194 females) consisting of 463 adults and 241 young (kids/lambs). These animals aged 5 months to 7 years were examined for gastrointestinal parasites. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of stool samples were carried out using the McMaster technique.

Results: Of the 704 stool samples examined, 630 samples were found positive with one or more gastrointestinal parasites giving an overall prevalence of 89.5%. Sheep recorded the highest prevalence (90.0%) contrary to 89.0% in goats. Nine types of nematode eggs and a single protozoan oocyst were identified. In sheep, Haemonchus species (18.7%) and Trichostrongylus species (13.7%) recorded the highest prevalence while in goats, Strongyloides species (10.4%) and Trichuris species (2.4%) recorded the least prevalence. Mixed infections of Haemonchus species and Eimeria species were most prevalent in sheep 64(19.9%) than in goats 26(6.8%) while mixed infections of Trichostrongylus sp./Strongyloides sp/Eimeria sp were least prevalent in goats 8(2.1% ) than in sheep 5(1.5%). In the two types of animals, mean intensity for Haemonchus species was higher in goats (694.4 ±1904.2) than in sheep (189.5±137.3). In sheep,  adults were more infected 198 (94.3%) than the young 91(82.0%) while in goats, adults were still the most infected 227 (89.7%) compared to the young 114(87.7%). Generally, adults were the most infected (91.8%) compared to the young (85.5%) ruminants but with no significant difference (P>0.05). Based on sex, male sheep recorded the highest prevalence (93.5%), followed by male goats (91.0%). Female goats and sheep recorded prevalence of 87.1% and 86.9% respectively. However, the overall prevalence of infection in the different sexes generally showed that, male animals were the most infected (92.1%) than the female animals (87.0%) with no significant difference (P>0.05). Concerning the various management techniques, prevalence of was higher in free range grazing animals (95.5%), followed by tethered animals (84.5%) while animals confined in paddocks had a low prevalence (76.8%).

Conclusion: This study indicates a very high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in sheep and goats of Bui and Donga-Mantung Divisions. From these results, it is very urgent and important to sensitize the farmers of these areas on good rearing techniques, they should use strategic methods like some medicinal plants that can be used to reduce the infection rate and finally to put in place a campaign that will help in the deworming of these animals in these Divisions thereby reducing economic losses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Carbapenem and Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases in E. Coli from Commercial Broilers, Sri Lanka

M. A. R. Priyantha, P. S. De Alwis, P. S. Fernando

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 16-22

Association between antimicrobial resistance in human and livestock have been widely discussed. The same or closely associated sequence type of E. coli has been reported in poultry and causing clinical infection in humans. The objective of this study was to determine phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance among E coli isolated from commercial broiler integrators (n=6) in the country. Ceacal samples (n=521) were collected from commercial broiler processing plants and E.coli was isolated and identified by conventional bacteriological methods followed by selected biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and interpretation were done by disk diffusion tests as described in EUCAST. The conventional PCR tests were carried out for CTX-M for ESBL phenotypically resistant isolates and NDM for meropenem resistance isolates. NDM and CTX-M were found in 0.38% and 18.2 % in E. coli respectively. High frequency of phenotypic resistance was observed against neomycin (100%), tetracycline (99%), ampicillin/amoxycillin (98%), and quinolone (91.5%), gentamicin (79%), and over 50% of the frequency of antimicrobial resistance were shown against amoxycillin + Clavulanic acid, streptomycin and chloramphenicol. All these classes of antimicrobial are widely used in commercial broiler operations in the country. NDM has not been reported in E. coli from commercial poultry previously, although NDM had been reported in human clinical isolates. Prudent usage of antimicrobials, strengthening resistance surveillance, molecular epidemiological studies, and understanding the role of the mobile genetic elements are strongly recommended to minimize the risk of dissemination of antimicrobial resistance in humans.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Pattern of Enteric Bacteria Isolated from Feacal Samples of Thryonomys swinderianus in Sekona Osun State, Nigeria

Oluwatoyin Modupe Aladejana, Oladiran Famurewa, Chibuzor Ikenna Onyia, Oluwakemi Abike Thonda, Clement Olusola Ogidi, Abimbola Abosede Olawoye

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 23-28

Thryonomys swinderianus (grasscutter) is a source of meat with high nutritional values, low in cholesterol and relatively high in protein therefore, it is a sort for in Nigeria and some other African countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potentials for zoonotic infections and for the presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in the faecal samples of Thryonomys swinderianus. Fresh faecal samples were collected from seven (7) Thryonomys swinderianus at selling point in Sekona, Osun State, Nigeria.  They were cultured on appropriate media and a total of 62 enteric bacterial isolates were recovered, they are:- Escherichia coli 22 (365.5 %),  Enterobacter  cloacae, 12 (19.4%), Citrobacter koseri  9 (14.5%),  Citrobacter freundii  4 (6.6 %), , Klebsiella  pneumoniae 10 (16.1 %), Klebsiella oxytoca 1 (1.6 %)  and Serratia liquefaciens 4 (6.6%) Escherichia coli O157:H7 were found to be 50% of the Escherichia coli present. Antibiotic susceptibility test was done using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Using commercially available antibiotic disc. The percentage of multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) for all the isolates were quite high for cefiazidime (100%), augumentin (99.1%), cefuroxime (97.1%), cerixime (85.02%), but relatively low for ciprofloxacin (3.4%), oflaxacin (1.82%), and all the isolates were susceptible to nitrofurantoin. All the enteric bacteria isolated from faecal samples of grass cutter were multiple antibiotic resistance bacteria and of great health concern. In conclusion Thryonomys swinderianus harbors different enteric bacteria which could cause several infections in humans, and nitrofurantoin can help the physician in the management of infections caused by the animals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Emerging Antimicrobial Resistance in Coagulase-Positive Staphylococci and E. coli Isolated from Bovine Clinical Mastitis in Sri Lanka

M.A.R. Priyantha, P.S. Fernando, P.S. De Alwis

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 29-35

Background and Aim: Mastitis is an economically important disease in dairy cattle, and one of the most common diseases both in developed and developing countries. The disease prevalence is quite high in Sri Lanka; both clinical and subclinical mastitis were reported, Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli are important bacterial organisms which cause clinical mastitis in dairy cattle. The antimicrobial resistance of these two bacterial species are increasing all around the world, only limited literature is found locally. The objectives of the study were to determine phenotypic antimicrobial-resistant profile in commonly reported two organisms from the clinical mastitis in the country.

Materials and Methods: Samples (n=197) were collected from regional veterinary investigation centers (n = 6) as a routine clinical submission for diagnosis of mastitis, one government dairy farm in 2018-2019. Coagulase positive Staphylococcus (n=41) and E. coli (n=17) were isolated and identified by conventional tests and standard biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done and interpreted as described by EUCAST.The coagulase-positive Staphylococcus isolates were screened for mecA and E. coli were screened for CTX-M and NDM by conventional PCR tests as described.

Results and Discussion: Methicillin resistance was not shown in coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus in the study and a high frequency of resistance was reported against ampicillin (98.0%), amoxicillin (64.7%), amikacin (68.6%), cloxacillin (64.7%) and oxytetracycline (56.9%). E.coli were shown 100% resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim alone. High resistance frequencies were shown for oxytetracycline (80%), chloramphenicol (80%), sulfa trimethoprim combination (66.7%) and doxycycline (60%). Only 26.7% of E. coli was shown resistance for cefotaxime and only 4 were shown CTX-M by conventional PCR.

Conclusions: Antimicrobial resistance is emerging in these two species of bacteria, national resistant surveillance and evidence-based antimicrobial usages are recommended to combat against emerging resistance in livestock.

Open Access Review Article

Effect of Treated Corn Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles as Dietary Supplement on the Growth and Healthy Performance of Pigs: A Review

Wilard Tuto Gica, Jiang Hai-Long, Emmanuel Atari Simplisio

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 36-48

The objective of this paper is to review the effects of treated corn Distillers Dried Grains with Soluble (DDGS) fed to pigs, specific on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and health status. As industrial ethanol production increases, there is a simultaneous increase in co- products, Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles. Utilization of DDGS as a dietary supplement in monogastric reduces feed costs. In terms of the nutritional value, DDGS is rich in fiber and protein, however, DDGS is indigestible in pigs if not treated. Therefore, a lot of research have been conducted about its treatment and nutritional effect on growth performance, nutrients digestibility of growing pigs, weaned pigs, sows, and finishers. Treated corn DDGS increases feed intake, gain weight, and it also improves nutrient digestibility and reduces the severity of lesions in the ileum and colon of pigs, considering the DDGS with absence of undesired levels of mycotoxins.A number of different types of treatment that exists, however, hydrolysis with the usage of microorganisms and their enzymes has shown positive impacts on DDGS polysaccharides (fiber). Other types of treatments are also reviewed but more attention has been given on microbial and enzymatic hydrolysis by the reason of being familiar in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) as a complex organ system where break down of complex polysaccharides into simple ones for pig efficiency utilization and absorption takes place. Furthermore, the characteristics, composition, and nutritional value of DDGS, in pig production are discussed into this paper. In conclusion, treated corn DDGS increases feed intake, gain weight, improves nutrient digestibility and the health status of pigs.