Aims: This study was aimed to describe the epidemiology of sheep gastrointestinal strongylid infection in Nziih, West Region of Cameroon as a necessary step to prevent the disease (strongylosis).
Study Design: A longitudinal prospective study.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in Nziih locality between January and November 2019.
Methodology: 739 ovine dung were collected and questionnaires were administered in 6 reasoned selected farms to describe strongylid infection. For the qualitative examination, the floatation technique was used to detect the presence of strongylid eggs and the Mac Master technique was used for quantitative examination. Coprocultures were set to obtain the strongylid genera which were identified morphologically. Prevalence, intensity and number of infective larvae were compared using the Chi-square and the Kruskal Wallis tests respectively while the odds ratios were calculated to determine the risk factors.
Results: Out of the 739 faecal samples examined, 450 were found positive for gastrointestinal strongylids with an overall prevalence of 60.2% and a mean intensity of 884.67±1569.04 egg per gram of faeces. Deworming status, breeding sites and season are identified as the risk factors associated to infection in the locality. However, young animals were significantly (P<0.05) more infected (63.9%) than adults (57.4%) and Prevalence was significantly highest (P=0.000) in rainy season (85.8%) followed by the transition of wet season to the dry season (65.2%) and then to the dry season (49.0%). Trichostrongylus, Haemonchus, Oesophagostomum/Chabertia and Cooperia where the four genera found all the year round with a peak in the wet season. The genus of Trichostrongylus was the more prevalent followed by Haemonchus.
Conclusion: The present study shows that there is need to control ovine gastrointestinal strongylid in Nziih by a best management of farms, putting emphasis to a strategical program of deworming according to age, sites and season.
Body weight and eleven (11) morpho-structural traits of 300 adult cavies sampled from three States of Northern Nigeria were used to study relationship between body weight and body dimensions in adult domestic cavy. Data collected on bodyweight and body dimension was subjected to least squares analysis and principal components analysis procedure. Results obtained showed a mean body weight of 495.00±7.35g for adult cavies. The mean values of the body dimensions ranged from 2.57±0.02cm for femur radius (FR) to 27.17±0.16cm for body length (BL). Two principal components which accounted for 64.47% of the total variance in body dimensions were extracted. The first principal component (PC1) loaded heavily on Belly girth (BG), neck circumference (NC), Heart girth (HG), Body length (BL), Shoulder length (SL), Head length (HL), and Trunk length (TL) and explained 49.25% of the total variance. The second principal component (PC2) accounted for 15.214% of the generalized variance and loaded on Hind leg length (HLL), fore leg length (FLL) and Hip to kneel length (HKL). The Orthogonal body shape characters derived from the factor analysis accounted for 52.5% of the variation in body weight of the adult cavies. It was concluded that linear body measurements would be effectively used to predict live body weights of the adult cavies.
The study was carried out to identify the rearing and management systems of commercial broiler and production performance of broiler with their problem and the possible solution at Shibpur Upazila, Narsingdi, Bangladesh. Broiler farmers who reared at least 800 to 1200 birds in the rural areas of Shibpur Upazila were selected for the study. The necessary data on management and production systems of broiler were collected from the respondents through face to face interview with the structured questionnaire process applied to broiler farmers between August-2018 to December-2018. Five (5) broiler farms were visited in study area for study broiler farming from day old chick to end of the production cycle. This data about the management and production system of broilers were recorded in detail by visiting the farms directly or as provided by the respective poultry farms owner by himself. The farmer collected the chick from dealer. The price of day old broiler chicks (DOC) was 40-45/chick. From 1st week to 5th weeks farmer used rice husk or saw dust as a litter where depth was 2-4 inch. In the study farm, the farmer gave brooding temperature 95°F on 1st week, 90°F on 2nd week, 85°F on 3rd week, 80°F on 4th week and 75°F on 5th week. The farmer follow the ideal feeder and waterer space. The lighting was provide 24 hours in first week of age and from second week the 2-3 hours darkness were provide for adaption if electricity fall. Farmer gave crumble feed from first to second week and provides pellet feed until marketing. In the studied farms, broiler birds were given pellet and crumble feed throughout the production cycle. The Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) of the broiler was recorded (1.53-1.58) on an average. Farmers also found that, 2-3% birds died up to marketing. Broilers are routinely vaccinated to provide protection from Infectious Diseases.
The objectives of the present study are to investigate the features of camel foetal adrenal gland using scanning and transmission electron microscopes. This study was conducted in 14 dromedary camel foeti at different stages of development collected from different slaughters houses in sudan
With scanning electron microscope, at the early stages the adrenal zones were not be differentiated Cleary, then the cells of the zona glomerulosa were arranged in compact clusters or groups and capillaries network were arranged between these groups. The cells of the zona fasiculata were arranged in the form of laminae or vertical parallel cords separated by longitudinally arranged sinusoids. The cells of the foetal zone were irregullary arranged. Some medullary islets were found between the cortical cells and some of the cortical cells were found between the cells of the medulla. The innervations and the blood supply of the adrenal gland increased with development. Ultrastructurally the noradrenalin secreting cells have more electron dense cytoplasmic granules than the adrenalin secreting zzcells. With advancing age, the cell organelles like mitochondria, smooth endoplasmic reticulum and the lipid droplets increased.
In conclusion, the major changes observed in the cells of the zona fasiculata and this may be due to its important role in the development of organs and during parturition. It was found that the prenatal development of the dromedary camel adrenal gland was similar to the development other animal adrenal gland but with special characteristic of it's on.
Dermanyssus gallinae, red mite, has been considered one of the most serious problems to poultry industry worldwide. The acaricidal activity of the Azadaritcha indica essential oil against the red mites of poultry was investigated. The effect of A. indica essential oils was assessed by contact and fumigation bioassays in laboratory. Freshly collected adults red mites from poultry houses were exposed to the A. indica essential oils at concentrations of 0.5%, 1% and 2% in Petri dishes/ vials in laboratory at 27 ᴼC and 60-70% relative humidity over a period of 24 hrs. Post treatment, the red mites were collected and counted to determine the mortality rates for each concentration in different interval periods. The result of contact and fumigation bioassays revealed that, the A. indica essential oil possesses significant (P<0.05) acaricidal activity at different concentrations against D.gallinae under laboratory conditions and cause significant (P<0.05) mortality rate of red mites compared to control group. The mortality rate of red mites researched the peak (100%) with concentration of 2% at 24 hrs post treatment. In conclusion, the study demonstrated that A. indica essential oil possesses acaricidal activity and could be used as potential alternative for controlling of D. gallinae in poultry farms.