Aim: The experiment was conducted to determine phytin-phosphorus in feed, pre-caeca digesta and faecal droppings of broiler chickens and to investigate serum metabolites and carcass characteristics of broiler chicken as affected by phytase supplementation.
Study Design: The experiment employed a completely randomized design. All data generated were subjected to analysis of variance, P= 0.05.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at the Teaching and Research farm of the Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria between February and April, 2011.
Methodology: Two hundred and forty unsexed day-old Anak 2000 strain broiler chicken were used in a 56-day feeding trial. The birds were allotted to five treatments with 4 replicaites per treatment of 12 birds per replicate. Diet 1 was the reference diet with no phytase supplementation but with both plant and animal protein sources. Diets 2 and 3 were duplicate diets with enzyme supplementation only in diet 3. Diets 4 and 5 were also duplicate diets with enzyme supplementation only in diet 5. Diets 2 and 3 had groundnut cake as the major plant protein ingredient while diets 4 and 5 had soybean cake as the major protein ingredient. They were fed ad-libitum. Phytin-phosphorus in feed, pre-caeca digesta and faecal droppings of broiler chickens were determined and the effect of phytase supplementation on serum metabolites and carcass analysis of broiler chicken were also investigated.
Result: The levels of phytin-phosphorus in feed exceeded that detected in pre-caeca digesta of ileo-caeco-colonic junction likewise the levels of phytin-phosphorus in pre-caeca digesta exceeded that detection in faecal droppings. All diets supplemented with or without phytase had no significant influence on all the serum metabolites of broiler finisher investigated in this experiment (P>0.05) but a slight increase in the values of urea, creatinine, cholesterol, triglyceride and high density lipoprotein in the serum of birds with phytase supplementation. There were no significant (P>0.05) differences recorded for the liveweight, dressed weight, eviscerated weight and all carcass cuts percentage of broiler finisher.
Conclusion: The supplementation of broiler diets with or without phytase constituted no danger to the health status of broiler birds. In carcass analysis phytase supplementation promoted muscle accretion.
This study was conducted on the Jos Plateau to investigate the influence of genotype and some non genetic factors on resistance of Nigerian sheep to helminthosis. The study sheep included initial stock of 64 yearlings (12 each of Balami, and Uda, and 20 each of Yankasa, and West African Dwarf, WAD, in a sex ratio of 1:1 per breed) and later their 156 offspring were included. Faecal samples were collected 6-weekly according to breed, sex, age, date, parity, birth type, and body condition score (BCS), and analysed for worm faecal egg counts (FEC) in eggs per gramme of faeces (epg) over a period of three years using modified McMaster method. Gastrointestinal helminths observed were Strongyles, Strongyloides, Trichuris, Nematodirus and Moniezia among which effect of investigated factors varied accordingly. Based on mean total helminths faecal egg counts (THFEC), rankings were: WAD (693.1 epg) > Yankasa (633.2) > Balami (494.5) = Uda (484.5); p<0.001, for breeds; late rainy (620.1) > early rainy(561.4) = early dry(556.4) > late dry(525.5), p<0.05 season. Females and adults had higher THFEC than males and lambs respectively. Higher FEC were associated generally with lower body condition scores (BCS). Year, birth type and parity did not affect FEC Generally.
Conclusion: Nigerian sheep breeds vary in resistance and tolerance to helminthosis and this suggests that there is a genetic basis for FEC. This could be exploited through selective breeding for improvement.
A total of eight hundred and ninety two (892) animals which includes cattle, sheep and goats were used to study the incidence of fetal loss in Zuru, Kebbi state, Nigeria. The study considered metropolitan slaughterhouse located in Rafin Zuru and a slaughter slab in Rikoto area for the study. The data was collected for twelve (12) weeks using a format containing information on the species and number of animals slaughtered, sex and pregnant status, number and sex of the fetuses observed from the pregnant slaughter. These were analyzed using simple descriptive statistics. The results revealed a total slaughter of 97 (10.87%) cattle, 202 (22.65%) sheep and 593 (66.48%) goats. From the total slaughter, there were 30 (30.93%) bulls, 67 (69.07%) cows, 80 (39.60%) rams, 122 (60.40%) ewes (female sheep), 384 (64.75%) bucks (male goat) and 209 (35.25%) does (female goats) slaughter. Among the female slaughter, there were 32 (47.76) pregnant and 35 (52.24%) non-pregnant cows, 79 (64.75%) pregnant and 43 (35.25%) non-pregnant ewes, 146 (69.86%) pregnant and 63 (30.14%) non-pregnant does slaughtered in the metropolis during the period of the study. A total of 32 (8.58%) calves, 85 (22.79%) lambs and 256 (68.63%) kid fetuses were recorded due to pregnant slaughter in the metropolis. Among the fetuses, 10 (31.25%) males and 22 (68.75%) female calves, 33 (38.82%) males and 52 (61.18%) female lamb, 100 (39.06%) males and 156 (66.03%) female kid fetuses were observed. In the future, the loss of fetuses due to slaughter of pregnant animals could pose a serious challenge to animal population and food security in the metropolis. Therefore, suggesting sound policies and legislations to reshuffle livestock marketing and abattoir operations in order to check fetal loss due to pregnant slaughter.
Aims: The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of enteric parasites in sheep (Ovis aries).
Methodology: A total of 96 sheep fecal samples were collected from Gabtoli cattle market, Dhaka from April to November 2017 to perform the present cross sectional study. Formol Ether Concentration technique was applied to process the collected stool samples.
Results:Balantidium sp. (41.67%; CPG 17.5±3) followed by Entamoeba sp. (37.50%; CPG 7.22±3) showed the maximum prevalence among protozoan parasites. Fasciola sp. (45.83%; EPG 45±5) and Hymenolepis nana (37.50%, EPG 17.22±7.5) were the most prevalent among trematodes and cestodes, respectively. Ostertagia sp. (50%; EPG 26.9±5) showed the uppermost prevalence among the nematodes. Trichuris ovis showed the highest intensity (53.7±13.5) followed by Strongyloides sp. (49.8±14). The lowest prevalence was recorded for Giardia sp. (8.33%; CPG 6±0.5). Male and female sheep were almost equally infected except for protozoans and cestodes, which was lower in female sheep.
Conclusion: The results of this study suggest high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitic infection in sheep (Ovis aries) from Gabtoli cattle market, Dhaka. Further effort is indispensable for a well-thought-out investigation and monitoring of enteric parasites in small ruminants to formulate operative control strategies.
The transition period in dairy cows entails three weeks around the time of calving and is considered a critical time for the entire lactation cycle. During that time, cows can demonstrate tremendous alterations of metabolic status and a dramatic change in cow`s immune system, as well as the pro-oxidant/antioxidant status. In this review, we present contemporary perspectives of the redox status in dairy cattle during the transition period and its effects on health and production with special reference to metabolic derangements, insulin resistance, assessment of redox status and the potential significance of supplementing non-organic and chelating trace elements to the transition cows.