Aims: To ddetermined the effect of the addition of sweet orange essential oil for tris yolk extender to percentage viability spermatozoa in Boer Buck frozen semen.
Study Design: Randomized Block Design.
Place and Duration of Study: Sample: Laboratory Reproduction of Loka Penelitian Kambing Potong Sei Putih Indonesia, between January and March 2019.
Methodology: The research procedure starts with the preparation of semen extender, collection of fresh semen, dilution of semen, equilibration, freezing of semen, and thawing. This research obtained conducted using a Randomized Block Design consisting of 5 treatment levels and five replications. Semen storage using 3 Boer bucks, which has done for three days. As a treatment is the addition of sweet orange essential oil as much as (P0) 0%, (P1) 0.25%, (P2) 0.5%, (P3) 0.75% and (P4) 1% on the tris yolk extender. The observed variable was percentage viability spermatozoa evaluated before freezing and after freezing (Post-Thawing).
Results: The results showed that the addition of sweet orange essential oil had a very significant effect (P <0.01). The results of adding sweet orange essential oil to the extender (Post-Thawing) were 44.8% (P0), 49% (P1), 51.8% (P2), 55.2% (P3) and 59% (P4).
Conclusion: It can be concluded that addition of sweet orange oil to tris yolk extender at 1% gave best results.
Poultry play a significant role in the subsistence economy of Bangladesh. Ducks are one of the most important poultry species in Bangladesh. Duck rearing is most suitable, popular and profitable in riverine country like Bangladesh. The study was conducted at Babugonj upazila of Barishal district, Bangladesh to evaluate the production performance and constraints of duck rearing under semi-scavenging system at farmer’s level. Farmers were selected randomly and were divided into control followed by minimum (30%) and maximum (60%) level of supplemental feeding regimes. It was observed that natural feeds were not available ad-libitum all the year round as per the requirement for rearing ducks. It was revealed that the average duck mortality (%) was higher in control group than that of treatment groups. It was observed that the mortality rate of ducks was higher in minimum supplemental group than that of maximum supplemental group of the whole experimental period. It was also observed that the supplemental feeding lowered the rate of duck mortality irrespective of age groups. The study showed that the average live weight gain (g/d) was significantly higher in treatment groups as compared to control group. The average live weight gain of ducks was higher in maximum supplemental group (8.24±0.65) than that of minimum supplemental group (7.86±0.74). It was observed that the average DM intake (g/d) was significantly higher in maximum supplemental group (58.32±1.20) followed by minimum supplemental (52.02±2.69) and control group (38.26±2.77). It was also observed that the average egg production (eggs/duck/year) was significantly higher in treatment groups than that of control group of ducks. It was found that the average egg production was higher in maximum supplemental group (181.80±4.55) than that of minimum supplemental group (175.60±6.39). The average egg weight (g) was higher in supplemented groups as compared to control group of ducks throughout the experimental period. The results revealed that natural feeding alone was unable to satisfy the nutritional requirement of ducks under semi-scavenging system at farmer’s level. It was concluded that supplemental feeding had a significant effect on production performance of ducks under farmer’s condition.
The objective of the study was to determine physicochemical activities and consumer’s preference of broiler chickens fed probiotic and enzyme-based diet. A total of Twenty (20) refrigerated (4 ± 1°C) whole carcass broiler chickens were used for this study. 5 broiler chickens from 4 dietary treatments were used to perform the comparison of physicochemical and sensory analyses in a Completely Randomized Design. T1- Control treatment (without Enzyme nor Probiotics); T2- Probiotic based diet; T3- Enzyme based diet and T4- Probiotic + Enzyme based diet. The broiler chickens were obtained from an experimental site at the Poultry Division of the National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom. Chicken samples were acquired then slaughtered and taken to the laboratory properly packed in cool boxes with ice. Breast samples were used for physical and sensory analyses. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and ANOVA at α=0.05. There were no significant differences in both the pH of raw and cooked meat. The cooking loss of breast meat showed no difference in all the dietary treatment. The same trend was observed for the cooking loss for drumstick meat. Cooking loss in thigh meat had a significant difference with T1 having the highest cooking loss. The product yield was significantly higher in meat from T3 and had the least in T1. It was also observed that meat from T2 had higher thermal shortening with less shortening obtained in T3. For boiled chicken meat, no difference was observed in colour, flavor, and juiciness while no difference was also observed in colour, aroma, flavor, juiciness and overall acceptability of grilled chicken meat. For boiled chicken, tenderness was higher in meat from broiler chicken fed T1 and T4 with less tenderness obtained in T3 while the grilled chicken meat tenderness was significantly higher in meat from broiler chicken fed T3. In conclusion, since there was no significant difference in most of the parameters measured, it shows adding probiotic and enzyme in the diet of broiler chickens does not have significant effect on the meat quality measures but shows significant effect on consumers’ preference when compared with meat from broiler chickens fed a control diet without probiotic and enzyme with chickens fed probiotics and enzyme. There is no need adding probiotic and enzyme in the diet of broiler chickens except in breaking high fibre diet and promoting wellness of the chickens.
Aims: The study was to determine the effects of sub-lethal concentrations of glyphosate-based herbicide (Delsate®) on blood parameters, serum enzymes and urea of Clarias gariepinus juveniles as well as therapeutic effect of Vitamin C(Kepro®)on the glyphosate-induced pathology.
Study Design: Latin square.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture Management, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka. Nigeria, between December 2018 and April 2019.
Methodology: A 48 hours-acute toxicity tests were initially done to determine the respective LC50 of Delsate® and Kepro® using 8 C. gariepinus juveniles of mean weight 41.50±1.35 g and mean length 20.75±0.43 cm. Thereafter one group of C. gariepinus juveniles (n=144) was exposed to 0, 5, 10 and 15mgL⁻¹ sub-lethal concentrations of Delsate® for 91 days followed by different treatments with 50mgL⁻¹ and 100mg L⁻¹ of the vitamin C after 7 days post exposure to glyphosate. Another group of C. gariepinus juveniles (n=144) were exposed concurrently to glyphosate and vitamin C for 91 days.
Results: The LC50 of Delsate® was 75 mgL⁻¹ and Kepro® 175 mgL⁻¹. There was significant decrease (P<.05) in PCV, Hb, RBC and AST of glyphosate-exposed groups when compared with Control. No significant difference occurred between TWBC, DWBC and ALP of exposed and control groups, except in neutrophils where significant increase occurred in ALT and urea. Treatment with 50 and 100mgL⁻¹ vitamin C in glyphosate-exposed groups showed significant increase in PCV, Hb, RBC and ALP with a decrease in mean AST, ALT and Urea The 100 mgL⁻¹ produced better therapeutic benefit than 50 mgL⁻¹ vitamin C. However, concurrent exposure to glyphosate and vitamin C indicated no significant therapeutic effect on the tested blood and serum parameters.
Conclusion: The LC50 of Delsate® and Kepro® for catfish have been determined. Delsate® toxicity induced perturbations in some haematological and biochemical parameters in fish. The level of ascorbic acid (100 mgL⁻¹ Kepro®) used in this study enhances catfish tolerance to environmental stress and could reduce Delsate® toxicity.
Aim: To estimate the prevalence of brucellosis and coxiellosis in different household livestock where the current epidemiological data are still limited.
Study Design: A cross sectional study.
Place and Duration of Study: Hygiene and Zoonosis laboratory, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Mansoura University, during 2018.
Methodology: The study included 1400 female animals, consisting of buffaloes (n=500), cattle (n=500), sheep (n= 250), camels (n = 100), goats (n= 50) as well as their contact owners (n= 25). A blood sample was drawn from each animal as well as their contact owners and was tested for Brucella (using Rose Bengal Brucella antigen and i-ELISA) and for Coxiella burnetii antibodies (using i-ELISA).
Results: The results demonstrated different rates of seropositivity among the examined animals. In total, 308 (22%) out of 1400 serum samples were tested positive for Brucella antibody in both RBT and i-ELISA. Of those, 99/500 (19.8%) came from buffaloes, 110/500 (22%) from cows, 70/250 (28%) from sheep, 19/100 (19%) from camels and 10/50 (20%) from goats. C. burnetii antibodies were detected in 104/ 500 (20.8%) buffalo samples, 80/500 (16%) of cattle, 50/250 (20%) of sheep, 20/100 (20%) of camels and 5/50 (10%) of goats. One hundred thirty nine cases out of 1400 (9.9%) harboured antibodies against Brucella spp. and C. burnetii. Only five cases (20%) among contact owners were tested positive for Brucella infection by using RBT and IgG ELISA; however, all tested human sera were negative for C. burnetii antibodies.
Conclusion: The study indicated a wide distribution of both infections in the study area and demonstrated an intense transmission within the studied livestock population.
Aims: This study aims to analyse the effect of ectoparasite infections on length-weight relationships and condition factor of cultured fishes in the West region of Cameroon.
Study Design: A stratified cross-sectional study was used to select fish farms and individual fish per farm.
Place and Duration of Study: Fish farms in the West region of Cameroon between December 2018 and December 2019.
Methodology: Sampled fishes were identified and examined from ectoparasites and pathologies according to standard procedures. Their lengths and weights were measured to determine their length-weight relationships and condition factors. A total of 2254 fishes (692 Clarias gariepinus, 969 Oreochromis nilotichus, 593 Cyprinus carpio) were sampled.
Results: Overall, 34.87% of the sampled fishes were infected with ectoparasites (O. niloticus (34.37%), C. carpio (37.10%) and C. gariepinus (33.67%)). The prevalence rates were significantly influenced by size (P=0.001, X2=10.59) and weight (P<0.0001, X2=32.24) and negative allometric growth patterns (b < 2) were observed irrespective of the parasitic status of the fishes. Though the mean condition factor ranged from 1.07 to 3.01 throughout in the study according to species, sex and season and ectoparasite status of the fish, significantly higher (P<0.05) condition factors were observed for male fishes, fishes harvested during the dry season and uninfected fishes compared to female fishes, fishes harvested during the rainy season and infected fishes. Among the infected fished, the highest (p<0.05) condition was recorded in O. niloticus followed by C. carpio and C. gariepinus.
Conclusion: The study revealed that ectoparasite infection significantly influence length-weight relationships and condition factor of cultured fishes in the west region of Cameroon. Irrespective of parasitic status, there was relationship between body weight and length of fish. The control of ectoparasite infection of cultured fishes is vital for improved conditions, health and production yields in fishery sectors in Cameroon.
Aims: This study investigates the out-turn of ChromiumPicolinate (CrPic) and vitamin C dietary supplementation on the performance characteristics and haematological indices of broiler chickens.
Study Design: The completely randomised design was used for this study.
Methodology: Six hundred and forty day-old Cobb 500 broiler chickens were randomly assigned to eight dietary treatments (10 birds/replicate). A basal diet was fractionated into eight equal parts and labelled diets 1 to 8. Diets 1 to 4 were supplemented with 0, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.2 mg/kg CrPic, respectively. The diets 5 to 8 were supplemented with 200 mg/kg vitamin C; 0.4 mg CrPic+200 mg vitamin C; 0.8 mg CrPic+200 mg vitamin C and 1.2 mg CrPic+200 mg Vitamin C, respectively.
Results: The final body weight (FBW) and relative growth rate (RGR) of the birds fed diets 2, 3, 5, 6, 7 and 8 were significantly (P<0.05) higher to those fed the control diet and diet 4. The CrPic supplementation at 0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg levels improved (P<0.05) the FBW and RGR of the birds, compared to the control. The vitamin c supplementation (200mg/kg) improved (P<0.05) the FBW and RGR of the birds. The haematological indices were stable (P>0.05) across the diets. However, the granulocytes count increased by the CrPic supplementations, compared to the control while lymphocytes count increased (P<0.05) by vitamin C supplementation.
Conclusion: The growth of the broiler chicken are enhanced by 0.4 to 0.8 mg/kg CrPic, 200 mg/kg vitamin C and combination of CrPic and vitamin C dietary supplementations without affecting main haematological indices of the birds.