Open Access Case study

A Case Study of Rabies in a Two Month Old Bull Calf in Bauchi, Nig

M. Dauda, Y. J. Atuman, G. S. N. Kia, D. O. Omoniwa, I. S. Tekki

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 32-36

On 8th November, 2019, a herdsman brought a complain to the clinic of the National Veterinary Research Institute, Bauchi outstation laboratory, Bauchi state, Nigeria, of his 2-month-old calf which was bitten 6-weeks ago by his unvaccinated suspected rabid dog, which was responsible for guarding the cattle herd. The calf had been showing some nervous signs and was unable to suckle 2 days prior to the case presentation. During a visit to the herd, the following observations were made on the calf: abnormal bellowing, drooling salivation, emaciation, hypersensitivity, inability to suckle, straining, dehydration, epilation and scars of healed wounds on the forelimbs. The calf was euthanized, a portion of the brain was collected and sent to Rabies Laboratory of the National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Plateau state, Nigeria for confirmatory diagnosis using direct fluorescent antibody test (FAT). The brain tissue sample was positive for rabies. The hard to reach nomadic cattle herders with rabies unvaccinated dogs guarding their herds could hinder rabies national control and elimination program. Although cattle are dead-end hosts, human exposure is possible due to close contact which may expose man to infected saliva, aerosol and splashes of infected tissues at slaughter. Therefore, there is need for equitable transfer of knowledge on prompt reporting of dog bite cases and urgent national implementation of strategic rabies elimination program to prevent economic losses or/and rabies transmission to humans.

Open Access Original Research Article

Enumeration of E. coli, Coliform and Aerobic Bacteria in Marine Fish in Port Sudan, Red Sea State, Sudan

Iman Homeeda Abd Alrahman Ali, Adil M. A. Salman, El Ayis A. Abubaker, Eman M. Hamad

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 9-14

This study was carried out to detect the total bacterial count, coliform count and E. coli count through the production chain of marine fish (fish market, scaling, restaurant before cooking, restaurant after cooking  and cooking and cooling for 24 h)  in Port Sudan, Red Sea State, during the period from September to December 2018. A total of 50 fish samples were randomly selected from marine fish chain. Samples were subjected for bacteriological examination. The study showed that the mean count of E. coli in the five stages of the fish chain was 2.57×102 +0 .6 cfu, the mean coliform count was 2.01 ×103+ 0 .7 cfu/ g and the mean Aerobic Plate Count (APC) was found to be 3.6×106+ 0.09 cfu/ g. E. coli showed higher mean count (7.58×102) cfu/ g in the scaling stage. The highest aerobic plate count (117×106) cfu/ g was detected also in the scaling  stage, this may be due to the high number of workers involved in this process without using proper hygienic measurements. The highest coliform count 53.9×102 cfu/ g was detected in the stage of precooking, during this period fish were put on the surface of tables without being cooled. Since high coliform contamination takes place after evisceration, the count was in its highest limit after evisceration in the restaurants. By using ANOVA with confidence interval 95% there was a significant difference between the mean of coliform, APC and E. coli count among the five stages in fish production chain. In conclusion the results showed that the marine fish in Port Sudan city were grossly contaminated by E. coli and other coliform, but adequate cooking can kill all the E. coli and coliform.

Open Access Original Research Article

Egg Quality Assessment within Day 0 to 10 as Affected by Storage Temperature

N. M. Sati, D. O. Oshibanjo, P. E. Emennaa, J. J. Mbuka, H. Haliru, S. B. Ponfa, O. R. Abimiku, A. C. Nwamo

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 15-25

This experiment was conducted in the Animal Products and Processing laboratory, Department of Animal Production, University of Jos, Jos-North Local Government Area (LGA) of Plateau State. A total of 300 eggs from a battery cage and deep litter housing system were collected from the Poultry Division of National Veterinary Research Institute, Plateau State (NVRI) at once for this study. Eggs were obtained from Lohmann brown hens, at 44 weeks of age to evaluate egg quality characteristics. Out of the 300 eggs, (150 eggs from each housing system), 30 were picked at random after the following storage days (0, 5 and 10 days respectively) for determination of egg quality characteristics in a 2 x 2 Factorial arrangement in a Completely Randomized Design. The storage methods were room temperature (ambient) range from 26.6 - 29.40C and refrigeration at 5°C. External and internal quality characteristics of eggs were taken, which include egg length, egg width and weight. Data were analyzed using ANOVA at α0.05.  Result showed that egg weight loss, yolk weight, diameter, ratio, yolk:albumen index, colour and albumen length were significantly higher at day 10 of storage with least values obtained at day 0. As the storage days increased, Yolk height, Index, pH, Albumen weight, Height, Ratio, Index and Haugh Units decreased with highest values obtained at day 0. There were no significant differences in the interaction effect of storage time and temperature on egg external quality obtained from battery cage and deep litter systems. Yolk height was greatly affected by storage days and temperature. As the storage days increased, there was a decrease in yolk height and index while an increase was obtained in yolk diameter. Refrigerator temperature had high impact on yolk height, index and diameter from egg in deep litter system while lower values were obtained in yolk height, index and diameter from egg in battery cage system.  Albumen height, length, pH, index and Haugh unit was greatly affected by storage days and temperature. As the storage days increased, there was decrease in albumen height, pH, index and Haugh unit while an increase was obtained in albumen length. Refrigerator temperature had high impact on all the albumen quality parameters measured in this study. The results obtained in this study reveals that both the storage days and temperature had great influence on the egg quality. Eggs can be kept up to day 10 in both room and refrigerator temperature without any adverse effect on the egg quality.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of Uda Rams Fed Graded Levels of Two Forms of Kanwa

N. Muhammad, U. A. Umaru, A. I. Bukar, K. M. Aljameel, M. B. Bislava, I. M. Jaji, M. A. Dilala

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 26-31

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the utilization of trona (kanwa) in the diet of yearling Uda rams. A complete experimental diet was formulated and graded levels of different forms of trona at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 0kg of maifatsi and yarzankuwa per 100 kg inclusion levels. The experimental diet was fed to twenty eight (28) yearling Uda rams. Data was collected on different form of Kanwa and analyze of chemical composition of different forms of trona (kanwa), and: determination of feed intake and growth performance. The mineralogical composition of the trona indicates that yarzankuwa and maifatsi contained Na (18,000 and 20,400), K (5,000 and 5,000), P (6.30 and 8.25) in mg/kg respectively. Results on rams performance revealed significant difference (P<0.05) between treatment 2 and other treatments in terms of average daily gain (ADG), final body weight as well as the feed conversion ratio. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in final body weight of rams fed 10 g / kg maifatsi (T2) compared to other treatments.

Open Access Review Article

Cage Fish Culture as Sustainable Fish Farms on Salma Dam

Abdullah Halim

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 1-8

Aquaculture, specifically raising aquatic animals for food, is an ancient practice. Meat from aquatic animals is very often an excellent source for protein, essential fats, and vitamins. Aquaculture can also provide sustainable income to farmers in areas where feasible. Traditionally, aquaculture in Afghanistan has played only a small role in the production of animal proteins for human diets. This is despite the overwhelming acceptance by Afghans of fish, shellfish, and other seafood. The inauguration of the Salma Dam in Herat Province introduced new potential for increased aquaculture in the areas surrounding facility. The dam resulted in new large bodies of water and significantly increased irrigation for potentially 75,000 hectares. This article provides basic information on Cage Culture fish farming facilities. The aim of the research is a special focus on the Salma Dam and fish farming system that could take advantage of the facility and its increased water output and accessibility. The research did in a library method on January to April 2017. The result shows that Cage system is feasible and recommended as sustainable fish farms in the Salma dam.