Several types of maxilla deformities have been reported in various species of fish. In salmonids, the maxilla deformities are observed with frequency. Here we report eight cases of a rainbow trout, five females and three males, adult, with upper maxilla foreshortening. The specimens studied came from an establishment located in the fish farmer located in the Patagonia, Argentina.
Aims: The study aims to evaluate socio-economic and zootechnical characteristics, and biosecurity practices in cultured fish farms in the West Region of Cameroon.
Study Design: A stratified cross-sectional study using random-number generation method of fish farms and their locations to select fish farms without replacing the number.
Place and Duration of Study: Fish farms in West Region, Cameroon between December 2018 and April 2019.
Methodology: Questionnaire survey and on-farm observations to obtain information on socioeconomic characteristics of farmers, production characteristics of fish farms, biosecurity and preventive measures. Fifty-one fish farms were surveyed.
Results: Most respondents were married (96.1%) Muslims (51%) men (84.3%) with primary school level education (51%) and at least 40 years old (92.2%). Mix fish species farming was widespread with Oreochromis niloticus (100%) being predominant followed by Clariasgariepinus and Cyprinuscarpio (47.1%), Heterotis niloticus (9.8%) and Clarias jaensis (5.9%). The fishes were fed once daily (35.3%) with farm-made feeds (66.7%) and showed 7 to 12 months breeding cycle (76.5%). Predation, theft, lack of financial and technical support were the main constraints for fish farmers. Extensive (94%) fish farming was predominant and isolation (66.66%), sanitation practices (94.12%) and traffic control (62.75%) were the biosecurity components adopted in farms. Lack of finance was the major cause of abandonment and poor biosecurity compliance rate (<25%) in the study. Husbandry system, culture duration, pond water source, capture method and religion of farmers influenced (p<0.05) biosecurity scores.
Conclusion: The study presents the first report on socioeconomic and technical characteristics, and biosecurity measures of fish farming activities in Cameroon. It revealed no socio-cultural and religious taboos in fish farming. Farm biosecurity practices can be improved through education and training of farmers on farm practices and biosecurity measures in collaboration with academic and fishery industry partners for improved productivity of fish farms in Cameroon.
The use of leaf meals as an alternative to feed ingredient is gaining popularity. This study seeks the effect of feeding diet containing graded levels of (Mangifera indica) mangoes leaf meal on the growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. A total of three hundred Arbor Acres breed day old broiler chicks were obtained from a commercial hatchery with an average (40±0.12g) body weight, weighed individually and randomly divided into five (5) Dietary Treatment groups (Treatment 1: control; Treatment 2: 2.5% Mango leaf meal MLM; Treatment 3: 5.0% MLM; Treatment 4: 7.5% MLM and Treatment 5: 10.0% MLM) with six replicates per treatment and ten birds per replicate in a completely randomized design. The experiment was conducted for the period of eight weeks. The daily feed consumption, weekly body weight, weight gain and feed conversion ratio were properly recorded. Carcass performance and hematology parameters were measured. Data were analysed using ANOVA at α0.05. There was no significant difference between the control and treatment groups in the initial, final, weight gain, daily weight gain, and feed conversion ratio. Feed intake was significantly higher (P<0.05) in broiler chicken fed control and 2.5% MLM which least feed intake and daily feed intake in broiler chicken fed both 7.5 and 10% MLM. No significant difference was noticed in the live weight, bled, defeathered weight and dressing percentage. But broiler chicken fed 7.5% MLM had higher dressing percentage. Eviscerated weight was significantly higher in broiler chickens fed 5.0% mango leaf meal with least value in broiler chickens fed 10.0% MLM. Heamoglobin, packed cell volume and Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) shows no significant differences. The red blood cell (RBC) was higher in broiler chickens fed control and 5.0% MLM with least RBC in broiler chickens fed 2.5 and 10.0% MLM. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was significantly higher in blood from chicken fed 2.5% MLM with lower MCV in chicken fed 5.0%. The same trend was observed for MCH Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin. There was no significant difference in all the white blood differential count including the white blood cell itself except for eosinophil which was higher in chickens fed 5.0% MLM with least value obtained in chicken fed 7.5% MLM. In conclusion 7.5% MLM can be added to broiler chicken feed because it shows a better growth performance with lowest feed conversion ratio and daily feed intake without any advert effect on the health status of the chicken.
Aim: Crop residues from dual-purpose crops, particularly from coarse cereal and leguminous crops are by far the most important feed source available to smallholder dairy farmers in highlands and lowlands in Eastern Africa. Therefore, this study aimed to (1) determine the effect of urea and molasses pre-treatment on nitrogen gain, digestibility and rumen micro-biota of crop residues by in vitro culture; and (2) validate the effect of feeding pre-treated urea and molasses maize stover on feed intake and milk yield of dairy cows.
Methods: Fresh dry crop residue samples were collected in highlands and lowlands agro-ecological zones of Manyara region, Northern Tanzania and pre-treated with urea and molasses. The in-vitro culture experimental design was completely randomized block with 3 runs (replicates) and 3 crop residue treatments (control, urea, urea + molasses), with duplicates of 2 bottles per each treatment within a run. From the in vitro analysis, only maize stover had significant (p ≤ 0.05) urea and molasses pre-treatment effect, and was therefore considered for comprehensive in vitro culture. The effect of urea and molasses pre-treatment of maize stover on intake and milk yield was validated in a feeding trial of Friesian cows in Siaya lowlands in Kenya.
Results: Pre-treatment of crop residues with urea and molasses resulted into significant (p ≤ 0.05) improvements in chemical composition and fermentation products, but not gene copies of selected rumen microbes (p ≥ 0.05), with exception of methanogens (p ≤ 0.05). Urea and molasses pre-treated maize stover diet slightly improved milk yield and growth of dairy cows, reduced expenditure on labour with respect to feeding and the cost of producing milk and contributed to an increase in dry matter intake.
Conclusion: Despite the improvements in feeding value of maize stover, and other crop residues in general, with urea and molasses pre-treatment, the efficient utilization to desirable extent is still awaited.
To evaluate effects of additional levels of Vitamins A, C, E (Antioxidants) in Broiler feeds on feed conversion ratio (FCR) and cost of producing 1kg weight of Broiler (meat).
The research was carried out at the poultry unit of the Teaching and Research farm of the college of veterinary medicine, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State between September and October 2019.
50 day old chicks were randomly allocated into two groups of 25 birds each: Group A and Group B. Group A, the treatment group received commercial feed plus additional levels of Vitamins A, C, E while group B, the control received only commercial feed. Water was given to both groups ad libitum. The birds were weighed weekly till approximately 1.3 kg live weight was recorded. Both the age at which they weighed 1.25 kg and the cost were calculated and recorded. Other Parameters evaluated include: daily feed intake, weight gain, and Feed conversion ratio. At 4th week, the group fed with antioxidants weighed 1.25 kg live weight at #650 cost of production, while the control group weighed 1.3 kg at 5th week at the cost of #944. There were significant differences in feed intake (P=.05), in average weight gain (P=.05) and FCR (P=.05) between the two groups.
This study suggests that additional levels of Vitamins A, C, and E enhanced growth performance, decrease FCR and reduce cost of production.