Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Climate Trends and Livestock Disease Occurrence in Kajiado County

Achola, Jacktone Yala, Ogara, William Okello, Ouma, Gilbert Ongisa, Onono, Joshua Orungo, Okuthe, Sam Oyieke

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 1-15

Climate change is argued to have a major impact on livestock production systems as it does not only affect livestock productivity but it also affects the incidence and distribution of livestock diseases. With the changing climate, pastoral production systems are likely to experience even a higher impact on their sources of livelihoods. The objective of the study was to analyse climate trends and livestock disease occurrence in Kajiado County. The study used a cross-sectional design with primary data being collected through focus group discussions (FGD), key informant interviews (KIIs), and expert opinion interviews (EOIs), while secondary data was collected from the Kenya Meteorological Services and County Veterinary Services. A total of 10 FGDs, 25 KIIs, and 12 EOIs were conducted in selected areas within the five sub-counties of Kajiado. Quantitative data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics while qualitative data was analyzed through Kruskall Wallis non-parametric method and content analysis. The findings show that there was an increase in variability in rainfall amounts and temperature between 1970 and 2015. For rainfall, the coefficient of variation rose from 21.6% (1970 to 1993) to 32.02% (1994 to 2015) while for temperature, the increment was from 2.6% (1970 to 1993) to 4.04% (1994 to 2015). There was no significant change in the average annual temperature and rainfall amounts between 1970 and 2015 (P > 0.05). Among livestock diseases, trypanosomiasis and helminthiasis reportedly had higher occurrences according to records obtained from the Veterinary department but according to pastoralists, East coast fever, Foot and mouth disease, anthrax, black quarter, pestes des petits ruminants and contagious caprine pleuropneumonia were the diseases that were significantly affecting the livestock (Z >1.96). In conclusion, the study showed that there was evidence of climate variability with livestock diseases impacting significantly on livestock production which is a major source of livelihoods for pastoralists.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Geographical Differences on Production Performance of Goat in Bangladesh

J. Bari, P. Biswas, F. Kabir

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 16-26

Bangladesh has a subtropical monsoon climate characterized by wide seasonal variations in rainfall, temperature and humidity which is suitable for goat rearing. The study was conducted to know the goat farm management and rearing system, feeding practices and productive performance in different geographical area of Bangladesh for the period of six months. The experiment was carried out during January to June in 2019. In this study data were collected from a total of 210 goat farmers in 28 different villages of north-western, north Bengal, south-western, and southern region of Bangladesh. It was observed that the feeding and management has great impact on goat production. Most of the farmers (80.5%) reared goats in semi-intensive system while, 12.2% farmers used free range system (extensive). The production rate and breeding performance was higher in semi-intensive system than that of extensive system. The main feeds for goats were green grass, tree leaves and main water source was pond though some farmers supplied concentrate feeds to their goats. The majority of goat farmers (83%) used village buck to bred their does and most of the farmers (89%) paid service charge to the buck keeper’s while, most of them did not keep own buck for natural service. The kidding rate was higher in northern region than that of southern region. In contrast kid mortality was higher in southern region (21%) than that of other region. The northern region was free from salinity, which was favorable for goat rearing. In this region the average number of goat (4.13 ± 0.45), doe (1.17 ± 0.26), buck (0.76 ± 0.01) and kids (2.21 ± 0.22) was higher than that of any other region. The southern region was showed low kidding rate and high kid mortality. The average number of goat (2.57 ± 0.28), doe (0.75 ± 0.11), buck (0.52 ± 0.11) and kids (1.38 ± 0.16) was lower in southern region than that of any other region. It was observed that the variation on production performance of goat in different geographical area of Bangladesh due to topography and salinity. Moreover, it was indicated that the northern region of Bangladesh has the highest performance of goat production both in intensive and semi-intensive farming.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study of Ziehl Neelsen's Technique and the Fite-Faraco Technique in the Histopathological Diagnosis of Mycobacteriosis in Fish

L. A. Romano, M. C. Klosterhoff, A. F. F. de Medeiros, V. F. Pedrosa

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 27-34

Mycobacteria are widespread in the natural environment, both in terrestrial and aquatic environments, and some species can be zoonotic. In aquatic organisms, especially in fish and crustaceans, they are diagnosed with certain frequency. Taking into account that mycobacteria affecting fish, as well as the species causing leprosy, have less mycolic acid, the authors used the Fite-Faraco (FF) technique in this work and compared it with the classic Ziehl Neelsen (ZN) staining. In the Laboratory of Immunology and Pathology of Aquatic Organisms (LIPOA), the authors chose from their tissue archive tissue material belonging to 10 specimens of fish of different species, belonging to LIPOA, which were reported cases over a period of 15 years (from 2002 to 2017). The specimens had in common the presence of lesions classified as granulomatous inflammation, but with the ZN technique it was not possible to obtain a definitive diagnosis of mycobacteriosis. The authors observed that in tissues from fish infected with Mycobacteria, the FF technique was more useful, since the presence of bacilli can be observed, where previously the ZN technique was used and no bacilli were observed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Weaning Age on the Survival Rate and Growth Performance of Rabbits Kept in the Western Highlands of Cameroon

Kisito Nsokika Chilla Bongaman, Felix Eboue Dieumou, Dieudonne Kamdem Pone

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 35-41

A study was conducted at the Nazareth Agro Pastoral Training Centre in Bamenda, Cameroon to determine the effect of weaning age on the survival rate and growth performances of rabbits kept in the Western Highlands of Cameroon. The research lasted for five months starting from April to August 2014 and aiming at looking for the appropriate age of weaning rabbit kits. Live weight and solid feed intake were recorded after every seven days depending on the kindling date of each doe to determine their increase in weight. The litter size, still birth, mortality and weaning age were monitored for all the kits. The rabbits were weighed pre-kindling and on the day of kindling with their kits. The mortality rate was registered as well as the feed consumed during this period.  Doe selection was done based on live body weight. The does were grouped into three groups: one having does with weights less than 2900g, group two having does with weight ranging between 2900g and 3200g and the last group with does with live weights above 3200g. Weaning was done in three phases 21days, 28days, and 35days, respectively. Data collected from the experiment were subjected to Analysis of Variance and Descriptive Statistics using Microsoft Excel application. The results obtained showed that there was a significant difference (P<0.05) among means of average weights of animals weaned at the 21 days, 28 days and 35 days of  age. The best survival rates of rabbit kids were obtained when the animals were weaned at 35days of age.

Open Access Original Research Article

Aetiologies of Chronic Emaciation: Trematodiasis and Secondary/Concurrent Organ Compromise in Off-Take Cattle in Ibadan Metropolis

Simon, Akhaine, Olalekan T. Jeremiah, Ameen Saliu Akanni

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 42-56

Aims: The primary aim of the investigation was to determine the trend and most significant cause of chronic emaciation and cachexia in off take cattle in Ibadan metropolis; and evaluate clinico- pathologic findings.

Study Design: The study was a prospective one. In this particular study, causative factors of chronic emaciation were examined. The purposive sampling technique was used for this study. Samples were collected from 100 chronically emaciated off take cattle of different breeds, sexes and ages, not less than 2 years old.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the University of Ibadan, Nigeria, between September, 2019 and December, 2019.

Methodology: The diagnostic protocol of complete physical examination; and comprehensive laboratory investigations such as parasitology, haematology, serum chemistry and urinalysis, etc., were followed as a minimum.

Results: The study revealed a trend of aetiologies of emaciation with trematodiasis due to Fasciola hepatica and Dicrocoelium dendriticum as primary causes. Secondary and concurrent organ dysfunctions were important findings. The haematologic parameters of packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), neutrophil and platelet count were statistically significant (p<0.05) with differences between the mean values of emaciated cases and control subjects. The serum chemistry parameters of albumin, globulin, bilirubin, aspartate amino transferase (AST) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) were statistically significant (p<0.05) with differences between the mean values of emaciated cases and control subjects.

Conclusion: The study established trematodiasis with secondary or concurrent organ compromise as one of the important aetiologies of chronic emaciation and cachexia in cattle in Ibadan metropolis. The increasing prevalence of dicrocoeliasis as revealed in the study should be of epidemiological and clinical relevance to livestock health institutions and large animal practitioners in northern Nigeria where these animals are sourced.