Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Feeding Fortified Composite Cassava Stump Meal-based Diets on Organ Weights, Haematology and Serum Biochemical Indices in Broiler Chickens

O. G. Ojambati, M. Adegbenro, M. A. Adetunji, V. A. Aletor

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 1-8

This study was designed to investigate the effects of using fortified composite cassava stump meal (FCCSM) as energy source in the diets of broiler chickens using organ, haematology and biochemical indices as response criteria. 5 diets were formulated in which FCCSM was added at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% inclusion levels to replace maize and designated diets I, II, III, IV and V, respectively. 150 chicks were assigned to 5 diets 3 replicates with 10 chicks per replicate in a Completely Randomized Design. At the end of the experiment, 2 birds per replicate were slaughtered and their blood collected for haematology and serum studies. Organ weights of the slaughtered birds were also measured. All data were subjected to analysis of variance. Results showed that among all the organ weights measured, only the liver, lung and proventriculus were significantly (P0.05) influenced by the dietary treatments. Among all the haematological parameters measured, the Mean Cell Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC), Mean Cell Haemoglobin (MCH), lymphocytes and basophils were significantly (P0.05) influenced by the dietary treatments. For the serum biochemical indices measured, the albumin (ALB) and albumin/globulin (ALB/GLO) ratio were significantly (P<0.05) influenced by the dietary treatments. Generally, there was no deleterious effect of the dietary treatments on the organ weights, haematological and biochemical indices of the broiler chickens. Consequently, it was recommended that FCCSM could be included up to 20% in the diets for broiler-chickens without adverse effects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Organ Histopathology of Laying Chickens to Bio-Control Methods of Aflatoxin Contamination

Olayinka Abosede Ojo

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 9-19

Aflatoxin is toxic and carcinogenic to both crops and livestock. Use of different methods of aflatoxin mitigation has not been very effective. Information on the biological methods in aflatoxin mitigation is scanty. Therefore, effect of aflatoxin bio-control method on organ weight and histopathology of layers were investigated. 700 point-of-lay Bovan Nera layers (LC) were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments (Aflasafe maize-based diet AMBD, FF+ toxin binder, Aflatoxin-contaminated diet with toxin binder (ACDTB) and Aflatoxin-contaminated diet without toxin binder (ACDWTB). There were 5 replicates per treatment and experiment lasted for 14 weeks. Histopathology of liver, kidney, spleen, bursa of fabricius and ileum were assessed using standard procedures. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and ANOVA at α0.05. Bursa histopathology of layers fed ACDTWB showed lymphoid depletion and hepatocellular necrosis, while those fed AMBD showed lymphoid proliferation and hepatocellular aggregates. Layers fed ACDTB and ACDWTB showed severe periportal hepatic degeneration and necrosis, with severe periportal cellular infiltration by mononuclear cells. This was classified as ranging from moderate to severe congestion of the parenchyma as observed in the lungs. The submucosal lymphoid population was expanded in the ileum of layers fed AMBD and those fed FF+toxin binder showed severe villi atrophy. Aflasafe maize-based diet enhanced integrity of the organ weights and histopathology of layers. The use of bio control method of aflatoxin mitigation (aflasafe) in poultry diet is recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anticoccidial Activity of Allium sativum and Punica granatum against Experimentally Induced Eimeria tenella Infection in Broiler Chickens

I. R. M. Al- Shaibani, A. M. A. Al- Khadher, A. Z. H. AlHibah

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 20-29

This study was conducted to evaluate effect of Allium sativum and Punica granatum against experimentally induced E. tenella infection in broiler chickens. A total of 80 one day old, broiler chickens were purchased and brooded in a deep litter pen. After acclimatization, the birds were allocated into 8 groups (1st to 8th group) separately housed; each group had two replicates hav­ing 5 birds. On 35th day of birds age (day 0 pre infection), birds were weighted individually; dropping samples were collected and after then all birds were infected orally with 36000 sporulated oocysts of E. tenella, oocyst/bird. On  day 7 post infection, 1st & 2nd groups, 3rd & 4th groups, 5th & 6th groups received aqueous extracts of Punica granatum, Allium sativum, and Punica granatum & Allium sativum in combination at doses of (0.7 g/kg, 1.4 g/kg), (0.5 g/kg, 1 g/kg), (0.5 + 0.7 g/kg) and (1.4+ 1 g/kg) respectively for three successive days; while, 7th group given Amprolium at the dose of 1 gm/liter in drinking water and 8th group acts as negative control group and kept untreated. Anticoccidial effect of plant extracts was evaluated on the basis of clinical signs, body weight gain and oocysts counts in faeces. The clinical signs showed by experimental birds were weakness, reduced appetite, ruffled feathers and bloody diarrhea. However, these clinical signs were reduced or disappeared in treated groups. In general, the body weight gain was significantly (p < .05) increased in treated groups compared to control grou p. The higher body weight gain (BWG) value was recorded in 6th group (2624 ±251); whereas; the lower in 3rd group (2264 ±254) on day 21 post infection. Oocysts counts were significant (P ≤ 0.05) drop in treated groups from day 15 and researched the minimum level on day 21 post infection. The findings of the present study revealed that aqueous extracts of Allium sativum and Punica granatum exhibited anticoccidial activities against E. tenella infection in broiler chickens and this may be useful for controlling of E. tenella in poultry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study on Goat Production Systems at Sanghar and Shaheed Benazirabad Districts of Pakistan

Naveed Ahmed Khaskheli, Gul Bahar Khaskheli, Asad Ali Khaskheli, Housh Muhammad Solangi, Mansoor Ahmed Gopang, Khair Muhammad Lashari

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 48-56

Study was conducted in order to compare goat production systems at Sanghar and Shaheed Benazirabad districts of Pakistan. Household surveys were conducted in two districts including five villages from each. The results showed 64.00 and 56.00% households possessing 21-25 years age in Sanghar and Shaheed Benazirabad districts. 40.00% had 5-10 years of farming experience, 64.00% were educated up to middle level in district Sanghar. 60 and 70% of household reported that there was availability of electricity and gas at their farms. 70 and 60% of household replied to have availability of transportation at their farms. Most of (70 and 60%) household in the Sanghar and Shaheed Benazirabad kept their animals under semi intensive housing system, whereas 20.00 and 26.00% reared their animals under intensive housing system and only 10.00 and 14.00% housed their animals under extensive housing system. 92.00 and 80.00% of households in district Sanghar and Shaheed Benazirabad grazed animals on pasture. 90.00 and 80% of households did not reared their animals in confined sheds in district Sanghar and Shaheed Benazirabad. None of households reared their animals in confined paddocks, confined fences and special housing in district Sanghar and Shaheed Benazirabad. 90.00% of household vaccinated their animals against bacterial and viral diseases in Shaheed Benazirabad district. 90 and 95% of households reported that they call veterinary doctor for treatment of sick animals. It is concluded that in Sanghar district, the majority of household keep their animals under semi-intensive housing system compared to that of Shaheed Benazirabad district.

Open Access Review Article

Goat Development: An Opportunity to Strengthen Rural Economy in Asia and Africa

Narayan G. Hegde

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 30-47

Goat has been economically important to people living in arid, semiarid, hilly and remote tribal areas, because of its tolerance to harsh weather conditions, ability to feed on inferior quality crop residues, high prolificacy, short gestation period and high rate of growth. The presence of 94.36 per cent of the world goat population in Asia and Africa reflected on its utility where most of the world’s poor have been living. Goat is a source of milk, meat and financial security, for families of lower most income groups. However, the production potentials of goat have not been optimally tapped due to un availability of services required for breeding, veterinary care, mobilisation of feed resources and market connectivity for milk and meat. Guiding and providing critical technical services to goat keepers through placement of field guides to improve yield and quality of the produce, instead of mere increase in population should be the focus of goat development programmes. Strengthening of infrastructure for supply of good quality inputs, processing of various goat products and marketing can enhance the income of goat keepers by several folds. Goat husbandry being an important tool for empowering women and poor and for ensuring nutritional security, it is an important livelihood support programme in the developing countries.