Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) is an economically important pathogen of poultry, causing respiratory infection and synovitis in chickens and turkeys. Early detection of MS infection is of critical importance for subsequent prevention and control measures; in this view the present research was undertaken for detection of MS infection in the poultry birds from selected farms of India. A total of 165 choanal cleft swabs from chickens (48 broilers + 117 layers) suspected for Mycoplasma infection were processed for direct detection of MS infection by PCR and cultural isolation. Out of 165 choanal cleft swabs subjected to species specific 16S rRNA PCR, MS was detected in overall 4.2% of specimens with incidence rate of 3.4% and 6.25% in layers and broilers respectively. In vlhA gene PCR, a gene fragment ranging from ~360bp to ~380bp was amplified in all seven 16S rRNA positive samples. The amplicon size varied in samples belonging to different geographical regions i.e. samples from Maharashtra region yielded ~360 bp product whereas from Delhi and Kolkata regions the PCR product was of ~380bp. The blast analysis of sequences of representative sample showed the 99.34% identity with vlhA gene of various MS strains including MS-H strain. The GenBank accession no. MN602747 obtained from NCBI. In cultural isolation all 165 samples including seven PCR positive specimens were turned out to be negative for recovery of MS. Thus, PCR was found to be a rapid, simple, sensitive and cost effective alternative to cultural isolation.
Aims: This study aims to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors of leptospirosis in slaughtered cattle and abattoir workers at the Ngaoundéré Municipal Abattoir, Adamawa region, Cameroon.
Study Design: 10% of the average number of cattle slaughtered in the abattoir within the one month visitation period was randomly chosen and evaluated. And 96 of 108 human sera were randomly selected and screened for the presence of anti-Leptospira spp antibodies.
Place and Duration of Study: Municipal abattoir Ngaoundéré and Veterinary Research Laboratory of the Institute of Agricultural Research for Development (IRAD), Wakwa Regional Center, Ngaoundéré, Cameroon, between March and June 2018.
Methodology: A total of 172 bovine and 96 human serum samples were screened for the detection of Leptospira spp antibodies by Lepto ELISA kit. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data on socio-demographics and risk-factors.
Results: The results showed that 18.02% (95% CI (4.7 – 33.34)) of the animals slaughtered were seropositive to Leptospira spp hardjo antibody. Though sex did seem to influence (P>0.05) leptospira seropositivity, age and body condition score were major (P<0.05) risk factors. A seroprevalence of 10.42% CI (4.30-16.52) was observed among the abattoir personnel with the use of personal protective equipment such as gloves significantly (P<0.05) influencing seropositivity.
Conclusion: Antibodies against Leptospira are prevalent among slaughtered cattle and workers in the Ngaoundéré municipal abattoir. This study reports the first evidence of human leptospirosis in Cameroon revealing real public health concern in the country. Public awareness campaigns and health education especially in agropastoral communities based on the One Health approach is essential to disseminate knowledge, associated risk factors and control measures of this occupational disease in Cameroon.
In order to characterize goat farming of the arganeraie in the province of Agadir in Morocco. A structured questionnaire survey and individual monitoring of farm animals were conducted in 35 randomly selected goat farmers in 9 villages of Amskroud commune in Agadir province. The results obtained show that the livestock system is extensive, traditional and oriented exclusively for the production of meat. The goat herd is heterogeneous and composed mainly of local breeds, with the dominance of the Atlas (Black) and Barcha breeds which represent approximately 80% of all goats. The prolificacy rate is 108.25%, the true fertility rate is 78.24%, while the apparent fertility is 69.83%. The mode of reproduction is free without the control of farmers and consanguinity is widespread. For 45.72% of farmers, the age at first kidding is approximately 12 months, while for 37.14% it is less than 12 months and for 8.57% it is between 14 and 24 months. The kidding are spread throughout the year and the number of calving per goat per year is 1 for 71.43% of farmers, while it is 1.5 for 28.57%. The interval between successive kidding is very variable. For 34.29% of farmers the kidding interval is greater than 12 months, 31.43% have an interval less than 8 months and 28.57% have an interval between 8 months and 12 months. Abortions are found among the 65.71% of farmers surveyed with an abortion rate of 28.42%. The overall mortality rate is high with a youth mortality rate <1year is 3.4% and that of youth> 1year is 9.36%. There is a virtual absence of food supplementation, health care and adequate infrastructure. Goat farming in the region faces several constraints (socio-economic, food, health, environmental and livestock management) that reduce its productivity and limit its development.
A total of 100 pregnant cows from various private livestock farms of Al Nuba town, Al Gezira State, Sudan was selected to assess the therapeutic effect of buparvaquone in bovine theileriosis. Theileriosis was diagnosed before treatment by blood smears and PCR. Theileria spp. infected animals (n=96) were divided into three groups based on their gestation period; A (6 months, n=25), B (7 months, n=41) and C (8 months, n=30). Each group was subdivided into two subgroups; treated animals [T (n=68) including; TA (n=16), TB (n=28) and TC (n=24)] and non-treated animals [NT (n=28) including; NTA (n=9), NTB (n=13) and NTC (n=6)]. The subgroups TA, TB and TC were treated with buparvaquone at the dose rate of 2.5 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly. All cows were re-examined clinically and laboratory using blood smears and PCR four and six weeks after treatment. The overall recovered cows showed significant (P≤ 0.05) differences between treated and non-treated animals; the recovery percentages in treated animals (T) were 38.2% and 66.2% after 4 and 6 weeks of treatment, respectively, while in the non-treated groups (NT) the percentages were 0% and 39.3% after the same time. A variation in recovery percentage was observed among animals based on the gestation period; the recovery percentages were 18.7%, 32.1% and 58.3% after 4 weeks of treatment and 81.3%, 57.1% and 66.7% after 6 weeks of treatment for group TA, TB, and TC, respectively. The recovery percentage was 0% for NTA, NTB and NTC after 4 weeks and 33.3%, 38.5% and 50% after 6 weeks for the same groups. In conclusion, buparvaquone is quite effective against bovine theileriosis. However, it could be less effective between 6 and 8 months of pregnancy. The highest recovery percentage is found in cows in 8th and 6th months of gestation after 4 and 6 weeks of treatment, respectively.
The objective of the experiment was to investigate the effect of vitamin C supplementation on egg quality, carcass characteristics and meat sensory properties of the Pearl Guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) in Ghana. Three hundred and sixty day old keets of the Pearl breed of Guinea fowl were used under a completely randomized design divided into four groups (CTL (control), Vit C 10, Vit C 20 and Vit C 30) each with 3 replications of 30 keets. The experimental birds were supplemented with Vitamin C dissolved in drinking water at a dose of 0, 10, 20 and 30 mg/bird/day for groups CTL (control), Vit C 10, Vit C 20 and Vit C 30 respectively. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance with the aid of GenStat version 11.1. The result showed that egg weight, albumin weight and yolk height significantly (P=.05) increased with increasing levels of vitamin C. Haugh unit (egg quality) improved (P=.05) with increasing levels of vitamin C. Birds supplemented with 30 mg/bird/day of vitamin C had the highest (P=.05) live body weight, defeathered weight, thigh weight, wing weight and liver weight while the control treatment recorded the least in all traits. Empty gizzard weight was significantly (P=.05) higher among birds on the control treatment. Birds supplemented with 30 mg/bird/day of vitamin C significantly (P=.05) had the best aroma, colour and flavour. This study concludes that egg quality, carcass quality and sensory attributes of Guinea fowl meat improved with increasing levels of Vitamin C. This study recommends to farmers that Vitamin C supplements up to 30 mg/bird/day is an ideal level to improved egg and meat quality, meat sensory attributes of indigenous Guinea fowls.