Open Access Method Article

Custom-made Devices Used for Rodent Restraint and Gaseous Anesthesia

Jankie Satish, Johnson Jenelle

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 1-7

To obtain scientifically reproducible results in animal studies is challenging because inappropriate handling of animals can negatively impact the final results. This is of significance when new / graduate students are attempting animal studies for the first time. The fear expressed by some students in handling rodents makes experimental research problematic. During the course of a graduate student experience, we developed three (3) devices which were hand made and customized for their intended use in various studies. We prepared a restrainer for tail snips/ IV cannulation, a device for intraperitoneal injections and a chamber for temporary anesthesia. These restrainers consisted of recycled plastic bottles of various sizes and helped to improve the ease of handling laboratory animals. We found that these devices were useful in carrying out experimental research in rodents whilst maintaining minimal risk to the handler. The devices created an environment where students with limited experience in animal handling can perform simple procedures easily without additional assistance The fact that the risk of zoonotic infections is greatly reduced and the fear of bites and scratches is minimized, students can utilize these devices to aid in the conduct of their laboratory experiments with rodents. The devices provided a simple and effective method for blood collection, intraperitoneal and subcutaneous injections. Although good animal handling techniques is advocated, the use of these devices can reduce the risk of scratched and bites and allow novice scientists to perform experimental procedures with relative ease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Broilers Fed Diets Containing Different Protein Sources at Starter Phase

I. S. Harande

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 1-6

Performance of broilers chicken fed diets containing different protein sources were evaluated. One hundred and fifty (150) Ross 308 day-old chicks were shared into 3 experimental treatment groups, and each treatment group was replicated five times, with 10 chicks per replicate. Three treatment diets were prepared as follows: T1 contained GNC as the major protein source, T2 contained SBM as the major protein source, while T3 contained a combination of GNC and SBM as the two major protein sources. The results showed that feed intake was higher (P<0.05) for T2 and T3 compared to T1, even though body weight gain and water intake did not differ significantly between the treatments. The best FCR was obtained for T2 (P<0.05). It is concluded that feeding broilers diets containing either SBM or a combination of GNC & SBM enhanced performance compared to feeding GNC as the major source of protein.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Backyard Poultry Farming in Cuddalore District of Tamil Nadu, India: Implication for Sustainable Rural Development

A. Varadharajan, R. Gnanasekar

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 1-6

Aims: The study aims to search out the present status of backyard poultry farming (BYPF) and to identify the restrictions that poultry owners face and to determining the relationship between farmers’ socioeconomics status and their output.

Study Design: The study was conducted in randomly selected fifteen villages of three divisions of Cuddalore district of Tamil Nadu.

Place and Duration of Study: Cuddalore district of Tamil Nadu, India.

Methodology: A structured interview was done with 240 respondents i.e. 80 each from the three Divisions.

Results: The result revealed that participants were predominantly young, and had low level of education in backyard chicken production. Agricultural labour was the major occupation; they had marginal land and medium livestock holding with more than 6 years of poultry farming experience.

Conclusion: The major constraints identified were high incidence of poultry diseases, lack of suitable germ plasm and attack by predators.

Recommendation: Extension programmes should take place so that the poultry owners upgrade their knowledge and become more skillful using the new technologie. This way they can maximize the productivity and their income.

Open Access Original Research Article

Balancing Amino Acids Supply and Requirements in the Diets of Broiler Finishers Fed Diets Containing Different Protein Sources

I. S. Harande, F. A. Maiyama, M. S. Ribah, I. Ieivere, A. Isiaka, S. A. Hamza

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 1-6

Performance of broiler chickens fed diets containing different protein sources was evaluated. One hundred and fifty (150) Ross 308 day-old chicks were divided into three experimental treatment groups, and each treatment group was replicated five times, with 10 chicks per replicate. Three treatment diets were prepared as follows: T1 contained GNC as the major protein source, T2 contained SBM as the major protein source, while T3 contained a combination of GNC and SBM as the two major protein sources as follows – GNC and SBM. The results showed that body weight gain as well as feed and water intake were better for T2 and T3 compared to T1 (P<0.05); even though FCR did not differ significantly between the treatments (P>0.05). It is concluded that feeding broiler diets containing either SBM or a combination of GNC & SBM enhanced performance compared to feeding GNC as the major source of protein.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pattern of Early Growth Traits and Predictions in Progenies of Muturu Cattle

Utibe Abasi Hillary Udoh, Jessie Ezekiel Udoh

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 1-7

A research lasting 161days was carried out with 12 Muturu calves (6 males and 6 females) in The Teaching and Research Farm, University of Uyo, Nigeria. The cattle were managed semi-intensively to investigate the pattern of early growth traits and predict body weight using linear body measurements. Animals grazed on common grasses and legume forages, supplemented with proprietary feed (16% Crude Protein and 3500 Kcal/Kg Metabolizable Energy). Data were taken on body weight; body, ear, tail and face lengths; body, neck and head circumferences; hind and fore limbs;rump and chest widths;heart girth,trunk and height at withers. Data were analyzed with Gen Stat Software Computer Programme. Prediction equations for estimating body weight were done with Completely Randomized Design. Results revealed a pattern of gradual increase from birth till 161 days. Linear body measurements contributed to body weight in the following order: Trunk (39.44 cm), Body Circumference (36.75 cm), Body Length (31.17 cm), Height at Withers (28.00 cm), Chest Width (25.05 cm), Forelimb (18.89 cm), Neck Circumference (14.55 cm), Head Circumference (14.53 cm), Hindlimb length (18.56 cm), Rump width (12.67 cm), Tail length (10.50 cm), Face length(9.53 cm), Heart Girth(7.39 cm), and Ear Length(4.86 cm). The pattern of increase ranged from 10%-98%. When body weight was predicted with specific age groups, neck circumference, height at wither, tail length, hindlimb and trunk were not part of the prediction equations. Prediction of body weight were highly reliable both at specific age groups (R=0.811 to 0.99) and without age considerations (R=0.840 to 0.961).Body circumference was the most repeatable measurement for body weight. Very high coefficients of determination indicate that linear body measurements may successfully describe variations in body weight. Prediction equations involving more parameters were more reliable than those with fewer body parameters. Predictions were more reliable with age.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Lawsonia inermis Leaf Meal on Performance and Blood Profile of Broiler Chicken at Starter and Finisher Phase

O. S. Adedeji, P. O. Adeniran, S. A. Jimoh, N. B. Olajire, O. O. Ogunfuwa, A. Afosi

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 1-11

This study was conducted to determine the effect of Lawsonia inermis leaf meal on growth performance and blood profile of broiler chicks for fifty-six days. A total of 150 day old broiler chicks were used. They were divided into five treatment groups of three replicates each (T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5 fed 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 g/kg Lawsonia inermis leaf meal respectively). Each replicates contained 10 birds. The experimental design used for this study was complete randomized design. The responses of the broiler to the dietary treatments were measured by feed intake (g/bird), final weight (g/bird), feed conversion ratio (FCR), haematology parameters and serum biochemistry parameters. Result obtained from this experiment indicated that Lawsonia inermis leaf meal had significant (P<0.05) effect on blood profile and growth performance of the broiler chicken at both starter and finisher phase. At the starter phase, the Average weight, Daily weight gain and Final weight had their highest values from broiler birds on T4 fed (30 g/kg Lawsonia inermis  leaf meal) while their highest values were observed from broiler birds on T5 fed (40 g/kg Lawsonia inermis  leaf meal) at finisher phase. Meanwhile, the feed conversion ratio had its lowest value in T4 at starter phase and T5 at finisher phase. At both starter and finisher phase, Lawsonia inermis  leaf meal had Significant (P<0.05) effect on white blood cells (WBC), red blood cells (RBC), haemoglobin (Hb) and Pack cell volume (PCV)  which could indicate a boost in the body’s ability to fight of disease. Also, all the serum parameters were significantly affected by dietary treatment of Lawsonia inermis leaf meal at the starter phase while only total protein, albumin, globumin and AST were significantly affected at finisher phase. However, total cholesterol was observed to be reduced among broiler chicks on T4 and T5 (fed 30 g/kg and 40 g/kg of Lawsonia inermis leaf meal respectively) at starter phase. The study therefore concluded that, Lawsonia inermis leaf meal could be included to the diet of broiler chicks up to 40 g/kg without any deleterious effect.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth Performance and Digestibility in Growing Rabbits Fed Diet Supplemented with Powdered Ginger

Tijani Olanrewaju Jubril

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 1-5

Sixteen (16) California white weaned rabbits of both sexes with average age of 6 weeks old weighing an average of 451.16 g were placed on four dietary treatment (4 rabbits per treatment) for ten (10) weeks. The experiment was designed to investigate the growth performance and digestibility in growing rabbit fed diet supplemented with ginger. The diet T1, T2, T3 and T4 contain of 0 kg of ginger, 0.25 kg of ginger, 0.5 kg of ginger, 0.75 kg of ginger respectively. Result obtained showed that rabbits growth performance increases with the increase in the inclusion of ginger with the highest weight gain in dietary T4(0.75 kg) with weight gain of 976.96 g, The feed intake was highest in T4(0.75 kg) with the feed intake of 45.39 g and the lowest feed efficiency ratio was recorded in T4 (0.75 kg) with feed efficient ratio of 3.17. The varying level of inclusion of ginger did not significantly affect the digestibility of dry matter, crude fiber, nitrogen free extract and ether extract. The crude protein was significant with T4 (0.75 kg) with the highest apparent digestibility of 78.62% to obtain maximum performance. Higher levels of incorporation of ginger resulted in increase in growth performance and digestibility therefore should be encouraged at T4 (0.75 kg).

Open Access Original Research Article

Dairy Production and Marketing Constraints in the Urban and Peri-urban Settings of Ethiopia: An Implication for Poor Performance of the Dairy Sector at Small-scale Farms

Zebrhe Teklay, Jema Haji

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 1-10

Ethiopia has a large potential for dairy development because of its large livestock population and favorable climate for improved high yielding breeds. But milk productivity is still low as lower productive indigenous dairy animals characterize the dairy sub-sector in the country.

Aim: Hence, the study intends to assess the major dairy production and marketing constraints in the urban and peri-urban settings of Southern zone of Tigray.

Study Design: Using a multi-stage sampling procedure, cross-sectional data were collected from 184 randomly selected dairy producers.

Place and Duration of the Study: The study was conducted in the Southern Zone of Tigray regional state, Ethiopia, and it was for one-year time duration.

Methodology: The study employed both primary and secondary data where primary data were collected through pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire instrument. Descriptive analysis particularly, Likert scale was used to analyze data.

Results: Results show that farmers ranked shortage of quality animal feed, frequent drought, lower productivity of local dairy breeds and shortage of land for dairying as first priority dairy production constraints (scale lies between 1.668 to 1.75) in the study areas. Similarly, farmers perceived that poor institutional support, high price uncertainty of dairy products,  lack of adequate and timely market information, high price uncertainty, domination of informal markets, lack of milk cooling and processing machines, lack of adequate dairy cooperatives and high seasonality in production and the demand for milk as the first key dairy marketing constraints in the study areas.

Conclusion: Dairy policies and strategies in the study areas should primarily focus on improving the institutional arrangements, raise the awareness on adoption of milk enhancing improved dairy technologies and dairy intensification in small landholding to improve the dairy productivity in the areas. Moreover, strengthening the existing and establishing newly emerging institutionalized markets such as dairy cooperatives and milk processing plants encourage urban and peri-urban dairy commercialization, which could also contribute to the household food security and income diversification.

Open Access Original Research Article

Carcass Characteristics of West African Dwarf (Bucks) Fed Yeast and Lactic Acid Bacteria Fortified Diets

U. A. Inyang, U. H. Udoh

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 1-8

This study was conducted to determine the carcass characteristics and meat quality of bucks fed diets fortified with yeast and lactic acid bacteria. 30 West African Dwarf (WAD) bucks (8.50±1.59 kg) were allotted to six dietary treatments with five (5) animals per group in a complete randomized design. The treatments were: diet without antibiotics or probiotics (control D1), control + antibiotics (D2), control + 2.50 g yeast (D3), control + 5.00 g yeast (D4), control + 2.50 g yeast + lactobacillus acidophilus (D5) and control + 5.00 g yeast + lactobacillus acidophilus (D6), where D5 and D6 were fortified with Lactobacillus acidophilus at 1.00 x 1012 cfu/g each. At the end of the feeding trial, three animals per treatment were slaughtered after being starved for 18 hours. There was no significant difference in final body weight and average daily gain which ranged from 10.60 kg to 11.75 kg and 20.79 g/day to 28.29 g/day respectively. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) in physical characteristics except for the rib eye area (REA) which was higher (P≤0.05) in D6 than D1, D4 and D5 (12.33 cm2 vs 7.67, 9.33 and 9.33 cm2) respectively. Brisket was influenced (P>0.05) with D3 (8.33%) lower than D5 (11.35%). Colour, marbling, temperature, water holding capacity (WHC) and pH at O and 1 hr were significantly different (P≤0.05) as a result of treatment effect. The meat cholesterol decreased (P<0.05) with increase in probiotics inclusion. These results showed that inclusion of yeast and Lactobacillus acidophilus even up to 5.00 g in the diet of WAD bucks impacted positively on the carcass characteristics and meat quality of bucks without any deleterious effect.

Open Access Original Research Article

Blood Serum Biochemical Changes and Milk Fatty Acids Profile Due to Using Garlic Plant as Feed Additives for Sheep

A. A. El Shereef

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 1-8

This study was carried out to investigate the effect of using garlic (Allium sativum) as feed additives on immune status and milk fatty acids components for ewes. The study consists of two parts: the first part included metabolism trial using 16 adult barki rams divided into four equal groups. The first group (T1) fed control ration (concentrate mixture and alfalfa hay), the 2nd (T2) and 3rd (T3) groups fed control ration with 2% and 3% (on dry matter basic) garlic powder while the 4th group (T4) fed control ration plus 2 ml/head/days of garlic oil, respectively. Results revealed that dry matter, organic matter and crude protein digestibility for T2 and T3 were significantly higher than their values for control group. The second part included feeding trial using 18 pregnant Barki ewes aged 2-3 years and weighed 40.9kg body weight at late gestation.  Ewes were selected and randomly distributed into three similar groups (6 in each) which fed the same rations that were used in the metabolic trial except T3. Results showed improvement of total proteins, albumin and Immunoglobulin (IgG) in blood serum of ewes by garlic additives. Also, feeding ewes on ration contents 2% of garlic powder or 2 ml of garlic oil were insignificantly increased IgG and protein of colostrum and the content of milk from C18:1ω9, C18:2ω6 and C18:2ω3 and C20:0 fatty acids compared with control group. It could be illustrate that ration which supplemented by 2% garlic powder and 2 ml /h/d of garlic powder has positive results on dry matter, organic matter and crude protein digestibility, immune globulin in ewes blood and colostrum, the proportions of conjugated linoleic acid, omega 3 and unsaturated fatty acids in ewes milk which consider a good indicator for animal immune status and  healthy milk for consumers.