A study on the effect of using different hormones (Dry pituitary, Fresh pituitary and Synthetic hormone) on the breeding performance of Clariasgariepinus and growth response of the resultant hybrid was carried out. The experiment was conducted in a Completely Randomized Design at the Hatchery Complex of National Institute for Freshwater Fisheries Research, New Bussa, Nigeria. The treatments were T1 (Inducement with Dry pituitary gland), T2 (Inducement with Fresh pituitary gland) and T3 (Inducement with Ovulin synthetic hormone). The result of the study showed that there were significant differences (P<0.05) in all the treatment means in terms of fertilization and hatching rate. However, all the growth performance parameters tested (final weight, mean weight gain, specific growth rate, survival rate and condition factor), showed no significant difference (P>0.05). The Pituitary extract treatments were observed to have fish of higher growth than those of synthetic hormone (Ovulin). However, dried pituitary extract (T1) was observed to have better growth performance than fresh pituitary extract (T2) and synthetic hormone (ovulin). Based on the findings of this study therefore, dried pituitary extract is recommended for induced breeding of African catfish.
This study was conducted (August to October, 2018) to investigate the effect of varying levels of Mucuna pruriens seed meal diet on reproductive performance and blood profile of rabbit bucks. A total of 30 rabbit bucks weighing 1083 g to 1100 g were randomly allocated to five experimental diets replicated into six containing 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% of Mucuna pruriens seed meal diet in a 2 month (8 week) trial. The phytochemical screening results shows no cardiac glycosides and alkaloids, in Mucuna pruriens seed screened, but a weak presence of resins, saponins, glycosides, steroids and terpens and antitraques, and moderate presence of flavonoids and tannins in Mucuna pruriens seed. The results revealed that the inclusion of Mucuna pruriens seed meal in the diet of rabbit bucks had significant (P < 0.05) effect on average daily feed intake with the highest value occurring at 0% (T1) MSM level of inclusion and lowest at 10% (T3), average final weight and average weight gain with the highest values at 20% (5) MSM level of inclusion and lowest at 0% (T1) for AFW and AWG respectively. The feed conversion ratio was significantly (P < 0.05) different between the treatment groups, and the values were generally similar in numerical comparison to those in the control group. A significant (P < 0.05) difference occurred in the relative weight of vital internal organs of the rabbit bucks between the treatment groups with respect to liver with highest relative weight at 0% (T1) and lowest value in 15% (T3) MSM level of inclusion, and the relative weight of the organs were generally similar in numerical comparison to those in the control group. The inclusion of Mucuna pruriens seed meal in the diets of the rabbit bucks also had no significant effect (P > 0.05) on relative weights of the reproductive organs except the paired testes weight which was significantly (P < 0.05) influenced by the effect of the MSM diet meanwhile testis volume, length and width did not show a significant (P > 0.05) difference between the groups but the mean epididymal (left) length significantly (P < 0.05) affected by the influenced of the MSM diet. The haematological parameters evaluated showed no significant (P > 0.05) difference on PCV, RBC, MCV, MCH, WBC and LDC (leukocytes differential count (N.L.M.E.B)). There were significant (P < 0.05) difference among treatments in Hb and MCHC. Rabbits fed 0 and 20% for Hb and 15% for MCHC MSM diets had significantly (P < 0.05) higher value than those of rabbits fed 20% MSM diet. The effect of MSM diet did not influenced (P > 0.05) the rabbits on total protein, albumin and glucose levels, and their values were comparable to those in the control, thus MSM diet influenced (P < 0.05) rabbit bucks on globulin, urea, creatinine, cholesterol, AST, ALT and ALP among the treatment groups. Significant (P < 0.05) differences in the mean value of testis density were observed in the left and paired testis density between the treatment groups and this could be attributed to increase sperm production. The MSM had positive effect on the physiological status (RR and HR) of the rabbit bucks and improved significantly (P < 0.05) most of the growth and reproductive traits studied. The lowest (17.44°C) Temperature humidity index during the study was observed in August (first week of experiment) and the highest (21.16°C) Temperature humidity index also was observed in August (third week of experiment), 2018. The study revealed that the rabbit bucks did not experience heat stress throughout the experimental period since the weekly THI means observed (17.44 to 21.16°C) were below (27.8°C) heat stress condition. The histological parameters showed normal structure of the seminiferous tubules and germ cells in their various stages of maturation arranged in a layered order. However, the seminiferous tubules were better organized with complete spermatogenesis, and more clearly defined in groups 2 (5%), 3 (10%) and 4 (15%) respectively and their epithelia were structurally intact and show normal germ cells compared to those in group 1 (control) and 5 (20%). It is concluded that the inclusion of Mucuna pruriens seed meal diet up to 20% in rabbit bucks diet would guarantee a good health and growth performance without any deleterious effect on germ cell differentiation, reproductive organ weights and physiological responses. From the findings, it appears Mucuna pruriens seed meal diet is a potential enhancer of male reproductive performance that can be recommended to rabbit farmers for improving reproductive performance, hence a boon to reproduction and production in rabbit farming industry.
The data set for the estimation of genetic parameters for milk and fertility traits of 650 cows calved between 1992 and 2015 was obtained from the database of Integrated Dairies Limited, Jos, Nigeria. The analytical model included the effects of herd-year-season, sire, cow and residual effects. Sire, cow, and residual effects were random while all other effects were fixed. Heritability estimates for calving interval (CI), conception rate (CR), number of services per conception (NSC) and no return rate at 56 days (NRR56 days) were low and ranged between 0.028 (CR) and 0.166 (NSC) in the third parity. Milk yield had high heritability and repeatability estimates across parities. The coefficient of variation was highly variable and ranged from 14.86-43.67%. Thus, there was no indication of an adverse genetic relationship between fertility and milk production in this population and overall genetic parameters imply a good practical management on the Plateau will be essential for improving milk without deteriorating the efficiency of fertility traits in Holstein Friesian cattle.
Aims: The aim of this study was to prepare and document the processing of skeleton of a bovine species and to determine the time involved in the preparation.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Animal Health and Production, College of Agriculture and Animal Science Bakura, Zamfara State, Nigeria, between October 2018 and November 2018.
Methodology: The skeleton of a Red Bororo bull was prepared and mounted using a hot water technique comprising skinning, evisceration and de-fleshing of carcass, carcass maceration, bone drying, frame construction, drilling and articulation of bones and bone varnishing. The time taken for each of the steps was determined using a digital stop watch.
Results: The entire skeleton preparation process lasted for five (5) days and 11 hours. The steps and time recorded in the skeleton preparation of the bull were: Skinning, evisceration and de-fleshing of carcass (6 hours), carcass maceration (16 hours), bone drying (4 days), frame construction (30 minutes), bone drilling and articulation (12 hours) and varnishing (30 minutes) respectively.
Conclusion: The method has shown to be faster (less than a week) than burying method, and safer, easier and cheaper compared to previous researches which requires the use of dangerous chemicals (chlorine bleach and fumes) and expensive items (skeleton preparator’s Standard Toolkit). It is concluded that drying was the principal time-consuming component in the skeleton preparation. It utilized 73% (4 days) out of the total time used in preparing the skeleton (5 days and 11 hours), while frame construction and varnishing had the lowest duration (30) minutes each.
Dermatophytosis is a fungal infection of the skin caused by dermatophytes fungi which have ability to invade the epidermis and keratinized structure derived from it such as hair or nails. T. equinum is the main cause of dermatophytosis in equine, all over the world. Clinical signs include mild to severe alopecia associated with erythema. Horses less than 2 years old are more susceptible to infection. The disease can be diagnosed by clinical inspection and conventional methods like direct examination, fungal culture, skin biopsy and molecular diagnosis methods. This review will forecast more light of the different aspects of this disease.