Open Access Short Research Article

Animal and Human Psychology

Vaishali Mani

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 1-8

Research on animals may harm the animals if proper care of them is not taken. It’s really riveting to know more about the animal behavior, but sometimes we humans injure the animals knowingly or unknowingly. We should respect an animal’s freedom, as most animals are caged or are separated from their family, while the researchers do their job.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spermatozoa Characteristics, Serum Metabolites and Testicular Oxidative Stress Traits in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus) Fed on Zanthoxyliun leprieurii Fruit

Lontio Fulbert Aime, Ngoula Ferdinand, Djitie Kouatcho François, Tchoffo Herve, Mahamat Tahir Youssouf, Vemo Bertin Narcisse, Moffo Frederic

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 1-9

Zanthoxyliun leprieurii belong to aromatic plants. Its fruit is commonly used as spice in soups and as medicine in many African countries. Because of its phytochemical composition, it cans also be used as antioxidant. In the present study, effects of aqueous extract of Z. leprieurii fruit on reproductive function in male guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) was evaluated. Fifty male guinea pigs with an average weight of 320.56 ± 30 g, aged 4 months were used. They were divided into 5 groups (G1, G2, G3, G4 and G5) of 10 animals each. During 60 days, animals of G1 were daily given distilled water orally, while G2 received 100 mg/kg body weight (bw) of vitamin C. In the other hand, G3, G4 and G5 received respectively by the same method 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg bw of aqueous extract of Z. leprieurii. At the end of the treatment, all animals were sacrificed for evaluating the genital organs weight, sperm characteristics, serum levels of reproductive hormones and stress biomarkers. Results revealed that the weight of testes, epididymis, vas deferens and accessory glands did not significantly affect (p˃0.05) in cavies exposed to different treatments compared to control animals. There was a significant (p<0.05) increase in serum content of FSH at 100 mg/kg. bw (26.67 ± 3.51 ng ml -1) and LH at 50 mg/kg. bw (10.71 ± 2.42 ng ml -1) in animals exposed to aqueous extract of Z. leprieurii with reference to the control groups. In addition, there is a non-significant increase (p˃0.05) of the level of testosterone in the treated cavies compared to controls. Aqueous extract induced significant (p<0.05) increase in sperm mobility and sperm count in treated cavies with respect to the controls. The testicular activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase increased significantly (p<0.05) in guinea pigs exposed to aqueous extract of Z. leprieurii compared with those of control (G1). The reverse effect was observed concerning the concentration of malondialdehyde. In conclusion, the aqueous extract of Z. leprieurii fruit efficiently improves male reproductive characteristics by increasing level in reproductive hormones and an improvement of anti-oxidative enzymes activities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Identification of Mycotoxigenic Organisms in Poultry Feed from Selected Locations in Abia State, Nigeria

Nwiyi, Paul Okechukwu, Nwabuko, Charity Ngozika, Amaechi Ndubueze, Ozioko Christain

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 1-9

Feed contamination by fungi can lead to nutrient losses and detrimental effects on animal health and production. This present study was designed to isolate and identify the mycological contamination of poultry feeds in some selected parts of Abia state (farms and feed depots in Umuahia north, Osisioma and its environs). A total of 120 samples were collected and used for the study. The samples were screened and processed using spread plate technique. The isolates were identified using slide culture technique. From the samples collected, the fungi contamination in feed samples from depots in Umuahia was 50%, Osisioma 78% and in farms it was 85%. Five fungi organisms were isolated from the feed sample which includes Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Mucor and yeast which were seen in almost all the feed samples. Aspergilllus (87%) recorded the highest percentage occurrence, followed by Penicillium (27%), Fusarium (24%), yeast (5%) and Mucor (2%). The total fungi load was significant at 2.0 × 105CFU/g=1 for feed samples from Umuahia North Local government Area, 7× 105CFU/g=1 from Osisioma feed depot and 1× 106CFU/g=1 from poultry farms thereby making the feed samples unsafe for poultry consumption. Therefore, there is need for screening of feeds in these locations in Abia state due to its high fungal load and percentage contamination.

Open Access Original Research Article

Exploring Women Participation in Small-scale Dairy Farming: A Case of Paikgachha Upazila, Khulna, Bangladesh

Md. Saiful Islam, Sarder Safiqul Islam, Md. Matiul Islam, Md. Maruf Billah

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 1-13

The study was conducted to assess the extent of participation of rural women in small-scale dairy farming for poverty reduction in two villages at Paikgachha upazila in the Khulna district, Bangladesh. Data were collected from 50 respondents through direct interviews involved in small-scale dairy farming during June 2017. The study revealed that majority of the women were middle aged (66%) in joint families (68%) with being literates (82%). Majority of the respondent families were marginal farmers (44%, 0.02-0.20 ha) followed by small farmers (42%, 0.21-1.00 ha) with high annual family income (62%,>1,50,000 Tk.) having dairy farming (100%) as the major occupation. About 25 operations of dairy farming were selected in consultation with experts and were broadly categorized into six aspects as economic, feeding, breeding, livestock management, health care, purchasing, processing and marketing activities. The study revealed that women participation was maximum in watering to livestock, cleaning of animal sheds, chopping of straw, care of new born calves, management of calves. The farm women participation was least in farm record maintenance, feeding of urea treated straw, artificial insemination (AI) practice, purchasing of feeds and fodder. Majority (82%) of the respondents had no organizational participation. All the respondents had low extension contact and majority (58%) of them was low cosmopolitanism, all of them having no training but they having high knowledge about dairying activities. Among fourteen selected characteristics of the respondents only age and knowledge had shown positive significant relationship with participation of women in dairy farming activities with 30.5% contribution to the total income returned from these activities with increased happiness, improved education and improved housing condition, which are the poverty reduction indicators.

Open Access Review Article

An Over View of Bovine Dermatophytosis

Wisal, G. Abdalla

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 1-12

Dermatophytosis is a superficial fungal infection of hair and keratinized layers of the epidermis and is caused by keratinophilic and keratinolytic genera such as Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophyton. It is an endemic infection in many countries throughout the world affecting companion animals (dogs, cats), domestic animals (calves), and laboratory animals (rabbits) as well as humans. T. verrucosum considered the main cause of ringworm in cattle. The typical lesion is a heavy, grey-white crust, circular and raised above the skin most frequently found on the head and neck. The disease can be diagnosed by direct examination, fungal culture, skin biopsy sero and molecular diagnosis methods. This review will forecast more light of the different aspects of this disease.