This study was carried out in a poultry farm in Vom, Nigeria with an outbreak of infectious bursal disease (IBD). Before the onset of the disease on the 3rd of May, 2017, the farm had seven thousand, six hundred and eleven (7611) four weeks old vaccinated pullets. By the 8th of May, 2017, the farm had lost five thousand, seven hundred and ninety-six (5796) birds, 76.15% mortality. Post mortem examination was performed on thirty-two (32) freshly dead birds and samples of the bursae were collected and fixed in 10% buffered formalin and processed for histopathological examination, while some bursal samples were also collected into universal bottles and stored at -20˚C for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) antigen detection by Agar Gel Immuno Diffusion (AGID) test. Clinical signs, gross lesions and histopathological findings were pathognomonic for virulent IBD while all the samples were positive for IBDV antigen by AGID test as evidenced by lines of precipitation. These results showed that virulent field IBDV was responsible for the gross and histopathological changes in the lymphoid cells of the bursae of Fabricius and tissues of the chickens.
Aim: In this study, the oral toxicity potential of Corchorus olitorius leaf extract was evaluated in rats.
Methods: Acute and sub-acute toxicity studies were carried out on different sets of rats treated with graded doses of the extract. In the acute toxicity study, forty five albino mice assigned to nine groups of five mice each were administered different doses of the extract ranging from 500 mg/kg body weight to 8000 mg/kg body weight and were observed for toxicity signs and mortalities. For the sub-acute toxicity study, four groups of rats were assigned treatments. While group 1 rats served as the control, groups 2, 3 and 4 were the test groups and were administered 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight of the extract respectively for 28 days.
Results: The results of acute toxicity evaluation indicated an LD50 value of 7100 mg/kg. In the sub-acute toxicity study, no significant difference was observed between relative organ weights for test groups at lower dose treatments (P>0.05). Basal Metabolic Index values were significantly lower in all test groups (P<0.05). RBC count, PCV values and haemoglobin concentrations were significantly increased following treatment except in the 1000 mg/kg treated group where a decline was observed with a concurrent increase in white blood cell count. Platelet count was also significantly lowered in the 1000 mg/kg body weight treatment group (P<0.05). Serum urea, creatinine, AST, ALT, ALP, total protein and serum electrolyte concentrations were all significantly elevated in the 1000 mg/kg extract treated group (P<0.05). Liver sections showed some degree of liver damage when compared with control, while kidney sections were intact in all test groups.
Conclusion: Hence, low to moderate consumption of Corchorus olitorius leaves extract may cause no toxic effects to the blood, liver or kidney. However, high dose administrations over a long period of time may pose threats of toxicity to the blood and liver.
Thirty (30) weaner rabbit bucks at 10 weeks old were used to investigate the effects of the varying levels of dietary citric acid on reproductive parameters of rabbit bucks. The rabbits were divided randomly into five dietary groups and assigned to five treatments tagged T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 containing 0.00, 0.75, 1.50, 2.25 and 3.00% synthetic citric acid in the rabbit diets respectively. Each group had six rabbit bucks with one rabbit constituting a replicate. Semen samples were collected on the 111th day of the experiment and semen characteristics evaluated. Subsequently, 6 animals randomly selected per treatment were sacrificed and their reproductive tract morphometry evaluated. The results of the semen characteristics obtained revealed that there were no significant differences (P>0.05) in the values obtained across the dietary groups. The right testis weight, paired testis weight, right testis volume, left epididymis weight, paired epididymis weight, right epididymis length, right vas deferens weight, left vas deferens weight and paired vas deferens weight were significantly different (P<0.05) among the treatment groups. From the results obtained, it could be concluded that the inclusion of citric acid in the diets of rabbit bucks up to 3.00% did not cause detrimental effects on the testicular growth and semen characteristics of rabbit bucks.
The present work aimed at studying growth performance, carcass traits and health status in broiler chicken fed on dietary Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf Meal (NLM) over a period of 4 weeks. Day old broiler chicks (180) were randomly assigned to six treatment groups, each with 3 replicates (10). The last treatment was designated as control (T6) in which no supplement was added to the feed, on the other hand T5 named as antibiotic group which contain antibiotic supplement with feed, while in treatments T1, T2 and T3, T4 NLP was provided as 1.0%,1.5%, 2.0% and 2.5% of feed, respectively. All the data were analyzed statistically at 5% level of significance. The results revealed a significant (P<0.05) decrease in feed intake (2101 g and 2104 g ) at 4 weeks in T3 and T4 group bird, but produced live weight (1708 g and 1712 g) which had no significant (P>0.05) difference with birds consumed highest amount of feed. The significantly (P<0.05) highest hemoglobin (16.33 gm/dl) was in 2.0% NLM broiler chicken than other Neem, control and antibiotic groups. No significant (P>0.05) difference was found in glucose and cholesterol for any treatment groups of broiler chicken, but significantly lowest (P<0.05) uric acid was observed in 1.50% NLM treated group than antibiotic group. The NLM treated groups broiler chicken showed no significant (P>0.05) difference in Neutrophils, Lymphocytes, Monocytes and Eosinophils counts comparing with antibiotic and control groups. Neem treated groups showed significantly (P<0.05) higher liver weight (43.67 g to 46.67 g) than antibiotic group (31.0 g). Spleen weights were not affected (P>0.05) by any treatments. The highest (P<0.05) viable bacteria was found in control group (163 x 104) than antibiotic (33 x 104) and Neem treated groups. But, Neem and antibiotic treated groups showed no significant (P>0.05) difference among them. The results of the study demonstrate the beneficial effects of supplementing NLM on body weight gain and dressed yield in the treated groups in broiler chicken. NLM is, therefore, suggested to be used as an alternative of antibiotics on broiler chicken ration for higher profitability.
Aims: The study aims to investigate the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal (GI) parasitic infections in goats.
Study Design: A study was conducted in Belo Sub Division from July 2016 to October 2016. A total of 499 faecal samples were randomly collected directly from the recta of 499 goats in six villages and analyzed for the detection of any parasitic ova or oocysts using standard saturated sodium chloride flotation technique, while faecal egg/oocyst count was estimated using the modified McMaster technique.
Results: The study found that all 499 goats with a mean EPG value of 494,3 ± 374,8) were found to harbor at least two gastrointestinal parasites. The prevalence and intensity of various parasites encountered respectively were: Eimeria spp (86%), (455.2 ± 400.8), Haemonchus spp (74.5%), (1282.9 ± 1244.4), Toxocara spp (72.5%) (953.3 ± 814.3), Charbertia spp (55.9%), (448.2 ± 416.0). Fasciola spp (45.4%), (475.0 ± 338.1), Moniezia spp (42.2%), (828.6 ± 793.9), Oesophagostomum spp (33.1%), (638.3 ± 463.5), Strongyloides spp (32.5), (200.0 ± 00), Trichostrongylus spp (28.3%) (200.0± 00), Trichuris spp (23.7%) (200.0± 00), Teladorsagia spp (14.6), (200.0 ± 00) and Nematodorius spp (8.1%), (50.0 ± 0,0). There was no significant difference in prevalence (100%) in the different age groups, type of husbandry management system and locality (P>0.05) except for gender where there was significant difference.
Conclusion: Gastrointestinal parasitic infections in goats from Belo Sub Division are common, with a very high prevalence. This high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitism among the goats possibly reflected grazing, low immunity due to malnutrition and lack of anthelminthic treatment programs.