Original Research Article | Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences. 2023 September 30;6(4):362-368
Effect of Vitamin E on Lipid Peroxidation and Oxidative Stress in Traumatic Brain Injury-Induced Rats

Bello Usman, Mohammed Usman Sajo, Musa Kalim Adam, Peter Anjili Mshelia, Ibrahim Bulama, Kyari Abba Sanda

Objective: A traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant contributor to both death and disability globally. This research was formulated to explore the potential impact of antioxidants in the management of experimentally induced TBI in albino rats.

Methodology: Adult albino rats were subjected to traumatic brain injury using the weight drop method. The rats were divided into three sets, each consisting of ten rats. In Group I, the rats were exposed to trauma and then received treatment (referred to as the traumatized-treated group, TT). In Group II, the rats were neither traumatized nor treated (referred to as the non-traumatized, non-treated group, TNT). Lastly, Group III comprised the normal control group. The treatment group (TT) was administered a dose of 67.5mg/kg of vitamin E (VE). Treatment commenced 30 minutes after the traumatic event and persisted for a duration of 21 days. To assess oxidative stress (OS), various antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in serum tissue, were analyzed.

Results: The group that received treatment exhibited a significant (p<0.05) rise in the levels of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPx), while there was a notable (p<0.05) reduction in the MDA concentration when compared to the non-traumatized, non-treated (TNT) group.

Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that the utilization of the antioxidant vitamin E (VE) could serve as a valuable neuroprotective approach in the management of traumatic brain injuries (TBI).

Original Research Article | Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences. 2023 October 2;6(4):369-379
Colour and Morphometric Characteristics of Ukerewe and Bunda Indigenous Cattle Populations in the Lake Victoria Basin, Tanzania

G. L. Chasama, E. P. Chang’a

This study was undertaken with the objective of comparing body colour and morphometric characteristics of indigenous cattle populations in Ukerewe and Bunda Districts located in the Lake Victoria basin area of Tanzania. A total of 169 adult cattle selected randomly from the study area were examined for colour and morphometric characteristics and then taken linear body measurements. Majority of the cattle had plain colour pattern (63.8% in Ukerewe and 67.4% in Bunda). Predominant coat colour in Ukerewe and Bunda Districts were black and brown, respectively. A considerable proportion of cattle in this study had small sized dewlaps and navel flaps. Ukerewe cattle population had significantly (P < 0.05) bigger heart girths and very highly significantly (P < 0.001) shorter horns than Bunda cattle. The rest of the physical body measurements and all external body appendages showed insignificant (P > 0.05) differences between the two strains. With the exception of ear length and muzzle circumference, all measurements were positively and highly (P < 0.01) correlated with the body weight estimated from heart girth. Thus, the strains under the study differed remarkably in phenotype. Genetic characterisation of the strains using molecular techniques is recommended in order to establish if they could have a common origin.

Original Research Article | Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences. 2023 October 13;6(4):380-393
Influence of Diaminazene Aceturate (Berenil®) on the Haematology of Yankasa Sheep Experimentally Infected with Trypanosoma evansi

A. M. Bello, H. Abdulsalam, J. Dauda, A. W. Mbaya, A. U. Mani

Haematological profiles were determined in Yankasa sheep experimentally infected with Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi) and treated with diaminazene aceturate (berenil®).  A total of 30 animals were divided into 6 groups (A to F) (n=5). Animals from each group were either uninfected or infected with T. evansi, and treated with Berenil®. Infection of the infected groups (A, C and E) was done via intravenous inoculation of T. evansi, while the infected group C and E were treated with berenil® at 3.5 and 7 mg/kg BW, respectively, by day 16 post infection (PI). The infected groups had pre-patent period of 8 days, with similar levels of parasitaemia (4.7 ± 0.27). In group A, the mean parasite count rose significantly (P < 0.05) to 72.8 ± 1.07 by day 12 PI and continue to a peak value of 250.6 ± 1.98 by day 28 PI. In group C and E, the initial parasitaemia rose significantly (P < 0.05) to 80.8 ± 1.12 and 78.2 ± 1.11 by day 12 PI, following treatment with 3.5 and 7.0 mg/kg BW of berenil®, by day 20 PI, respectively, and was completely eliminated by day 9 and 5 post treatment (PT), respectively. As parasitaemia increased, PCV, RBC, Hb, WBC, platelets count, absolute lymphocytes and monocytes, significantly declined (P<0.05) in group A, leading to anaemia at day 16 PT. It is therefore, demonstrated that both the two doses of berenil® were effective in the treatment of the disease under experimental conditions but 7.0 mg/kg cleared the parasitaemia faster.

Original Research Article | Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences. 2023 October 17;6(4):394-403
Promotor Analysis of Cattle Endometrium throughout Oestrous Cycle and Early Gestation Period

Sayed Ali Askar Musavi, Mohammad Hakim, Noor Ahmad Akbari

Endometrial gene expression is principally controlled by the ovarian steroids and gestation recognition features. An important number of analyses of differential expression genes (DEGs) in bovine endometrium have been reported. Bovine uteri at follicular phase (FS), luteal phase (LS) and implantation phase (IS). A promoter, as associated to genomics, is a section of DNA upstream of a gene where applicable proteins (such as RNA polymerase and transcription factors) bind to inductee transcription of that gene. The subsequent transcription produces an RNA molecule (such as mRNA). RNA polymerase and the basic transcription factors (TFs) bind to the promoter sequence and start transcription. TFs, belong to growing family of regulatory protein, influence transcription by regulating many different cellular function by interacting directly with DNA. 1kb upstream of the promoter region of each DEGs analyzed by NSITE (Recognition of Regulatory motifs) of Softberry (http://www.softberry.com) and predicated several TFs binding site. GO (gene ontology) used for identification of those DEGs have TFs functions. Promoter analyses predicted 150-160 TFs for each phase. DLX4 and IRF4 at FS, and IRF5, IRF9, STAT1 and STAT2 at IS were in common to DEGs and estimated TFs, respectively. The current research identified possibility molecular mechanisms governing inner epithelial role and coming events studies.

Original Research Article | Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences. 2023 October 18;6(4):404-417
Pre and Post-Weaning Growth and Survivability of Three Genotypes of Cattle at TALIRI Tanga, Tanzania

F. M. Chamwazi, A. Nguluma, Z. C. Nziku, S. H. Mbaga

This study examined the growth performance of the three genotypes of cattle raised at TALIRI Tanga: Pure Boran (BB), Boran + Friesian (BF), and Boran + Jersey (BF) crosses. The 20 years of data (from 2001 to 2020) were used to examine the effects of calves' genotype, sex, amount of rainfall, season of birth, and type of rearing on growth parameters (birth weight, weaning weight, yearling weight, pre-weaning growth, and post-weaning growth, in kg and kg/day respectively). The General Linear Model was used to calculate growth parameters and correlations while, the Chi-square test performed to assess pre- and post-weaning survivability. BF calves were substantially heavier at birth than BB and BJ calves (P<0.05). Male calves were 4.1% heavier than female calves, at birth and the calves born during the dry season were 4.0% heavier than those born during the wet season. BB calves were significantly survived % better than BF and BJ in all growth stages female calves survived better by 3.57% than male calves and the bucket-reared calves had survived significantly higher than direct-suckled calves by 6.9% in pre-weaning stage. The phenotypic correlation between birth weight and weaning weight was moderately positive (0.3), as was between weaning weight and yearling weight. However, the correlation between weaning weight and pre-weaning growth, and between yearling weight and post-weaning were both strongly positive (0.9), while the correlation between birth weight and post-weaning growth was negative (r= -0.1). Thus, crossing exotic breeds with Boran cattle enhances crosses growth performance relative to Boran while also improving cross survivability in hot/humid environments compared to pure exotic cattle.

Original Research Article | Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences. 2023 October 20;6(4):418-424
Hospital Prevalence of Infectious and Non-Infectious Diseases of Dog at Khulna, Bangladesh

Mahfuza Ferdous, Nazmin Sultana, Md. Asaduzzaman Lovelu, Mst. Assrafi Siddika, Fowzia Bahar, Tanzila Zafrin Tanvi

Aims: The study was conducted to investigate the hospital prevalence of different infectious and non-infectious diseases of dog.

Place and Duration of Study: Data was collected from Khulna sadar upazilla veterinary hospital, Khulna pet clinic, Daulotpur veterinary hospital, Khulna between August 2022 and January, 2023.

Methodology: The study examines the prevalence of infectious (caused by pathogens) and non-infectious (caused by factors such as genetics, malnutrition, environment etc.) diseases of dog according to their sex, breed and age.

Results: A total number of 122 dogs were found during the investigation in which prevalence of infectious disease (65.57%) was higher than non-infectious disease (34.43%). The higher prevalence was found in female (54.10%) than male (45.9%) with no significance. According to breed, the highest prevalence was observed in Local breed (69.67%) followed by German shepherd (18.86%), Doberman (7.38%) and Labrador (4.10%). Age-wise prevalence was highest in 7-36 months (47.54%) age followed by >36 months (27.87%) and less than 6 months (24.60%). Age, sex, Breed showed a significant association with diseases with a p-value <0.05 in the study.

Original Research Article | Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences. 2023 October 27;6(4):425-440
Detection of the Hormone Receptors Controlling the Female Genital Tract throughout the Sexual Cycle of an Oviparous Caecilian Amphibian, Boulengerula taitana

C. Brun, J. Measey, J. M. Exbrayat, M. Raquet

Aims: Hormonal control of the development of the oviducts, as inferred by the distribution of hormone receptors, is described for the first time in the oviparous caecilian, Boulengerula taitana (Gymnophiona: Herpelidae). A comparison is made with the aquatic viviparous caecilian, Typhlonectes compressicauda.

Study Design: The study was performed from histological sections of the left oviduct of three B. taitana females collected at different periods of the sexual cycle in the Taita Hills, Kenia, from April 2003 to March 2004. The hormone receptors were localized with indirect immunohistochemical method. Sixty counts were carried out per antibody and per season in the various parts of the oviduct. Analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA) and Fisher test (LSD) permitted to determine the significant differences between the groups (p≤ 0.05).

Place and Duration of Study: Sciences and Humanities Confluence research Center, UCLy, cedex 02, 69288 Lyon, France

Methodology: By using an immunohistochemical staining method, the specific receptors of steroid hormones (α- and β estrogen, progesterone) and pituitary hormones (gonadotropin, prolactin) were detected in the tissues of the ostium and the oviduct during the female sexual cycle.

Results: The number of immunostained cells reflects the sensitivity of each part of the genital tract to hormonal control, related to its physiological functions. The large number of progesterone receptors detected in tissues during the preovulation period implies the key role of progesterone in preparing the oviduct for ovulation. The two estrogen receptors are differently detected in the tissues, suggesting a specific physiological function of each isoform. The presence of pituitary hormone receptors in the cells during the reproductive period suggests direct control of these hormones on the development and functions of the genital tract. Similarities are observed in the neuroendocrine control of this oviparous species and the viviparous caecilian Typhlonectes compressicauda.

Conclusion: This study indicates the presence of steroid and pituitary hormone receptors in the genital tract of B. taitana, with variations closely related to the key events of seasonal reproductive activity, and confirm that oviduct morphology is closely correlated with ovarian function. A comparative study of the detection of these hormone receptors also revealed correspondence between the parts of the oviduct in the oviparous and the viviparous species T. compressicauda. Despite differences in reproductive mode, similarity in receptor distribution between the two species suggests conservative physiological control of the reproductive cycle in caecilians.

Original Research Article | Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences. 2023 November 16;6(4):441-448
Risk Factors Associated with Prevalence of Brucellosis and Bacteria in Fermented Cow Milk Obtained from Kajiado Central Sub-County in Kenya

Kagira J. M., Hussein A., Kiptanui A., Lkurasian L., Kiarie J., Cheruiyot K.

Cattle rearing is the most important activities practiced by Maasai pastoralists in Kajiado Central Sub-County, Kenya. However, its role has been hampered by occurrence of Brucellosis and other pathogenic conditions of important public health concern. The present study assessed the prevalence and risk factors of brucellosis, and presence of pathogenic bacteria in fermented cow milk obtained from respondents in Kajiado Central Sub-County. The study design was a cross-sectional where 114 fermented milk samples were sampled. From each household, one fermented milk sample was obtained and assessed for brucellosis using milk ring test. The milk was transported to the laboratory where presence of bacteria was determined using standard bacteriological methods. Questionnaires were administered at household level to determine the risk factors associated with occurrence of brucellosis. The overall prevalence of brucellosis in the fermented cattle milk was 7.89%. Herding of cattle with other livestock and use of communal bulls in breeding had a close association (p≤0.05) with the prevalence of brucellosis. There were 7 bacterial species isolated from the milk and these included Streptococcus spp. (43.86%), Lactobacillus spp. (40.35%), Klebsiella spp. (15.79%), Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus (14.91%) Pseudomonas spp. (14.04%), Staphylococcus aureus (11.4%), Salmonella typhi (7.89%) and Escherichia coli (4.39%). The mean coliform count of the fermented milk ranged from 1.61×101 to 5.84×101 CFU/Ml. In conclusion, the study showed that brucellosis is prevalent in the study area. There is a need to create awareness of occurrence of brucellosis and other pathogenic bacteria in fermented milk by addressing the observed risk factors.

Original Research Article | Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences. 2023 November 29;6(4):449-456
Effect of Seasonal Mating on Calves’ Birth Weights of Mpwapwa Cattle Breed and its Crosses Produced at Tanzania Livestock Research Institute

Erick A. Mbisha, Mwemezi L. Kabululu

Aims: A study was conducted to assess how seasonal mating could influence calf birth weight in cattle among Mpwapwa breed and its four crossbreeds reared at Tanzania Livestock Research Institute (TALIRI) farm.

Study Design: This study used farm data collected at TALIRI, Mpwapwa centre. A total of 585 calves of Mpwapwa cattle breed and its four different crosses, born between 2018 and 2023 were included in the study. Among those, 395 were born during the dry season (June to November) while 190 were born during the rainy season (December to May).

Methodology: To assess for significance of differences in mean birth weights between seasons and crossbreeds, a two – way ANOVA with interaction was performed, followed by univariate pairwise comparisons with Bonferroni correction while pairwise differences between crossbreeds were assessed using an independent samples t – test.

Results: The results showed that, mean birth weights differed between seasons (F=4.88, P=.03) and between calf crossbreeds (F=17.33, P<.001). The mean birth weight of calves born during the rainy season (24.4kg) was higher compared to that of calves born during the dry season (23.4kg) (P=.04). Overall, Vianze calves had highest mean birth weight (26.6kg, n = 64), followed by Kikombo calves (25.7kg, n = 61), Matondwe (24.5kg, n = 35) and Chibamba calves (24.4 kg, n = 81). Mpwapwa calves had the lowest mean birth weight (22.6kg, n = 344).

Conclusion: These findings demonstrate the importance of strategic feeding especially of pregnant cattle in optimizing subsequent mean calf birth weights. Feeding the pregnant cattle with maize leftovers and hay resulted to higher birth weights. Also, the role of cattle crossbreeding programs in improving calf birth weights has been demonstrated.

Original Research Article | Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences. 2023 November 29;6(4):457-471
Assessment of Risk Factors of Eco-Friendly and Sustainable Beef Fattening in the Northern Part of Bangladesh

Md. Arafat Jaman, Tahera Yeasmin, Begum Fatema Zohara, Md. Faruk Islam

The goals of the current study were to evaluate the risk factors involved in livestock production in Bangladesh as well as the current status of the country's cattle farms, the background of farmers conditions, rearing factors, feeding practices, biosecurity conditions, usage of antibiotics and growth promoters, climatic change adjustment, and disease prevalence and treatment strategy. A systematic questionnaire was used to conduct the survey among 300 cattle farms from June 2022 to July 2023. The socioeconomic conditions of farmers, rearing factors, and feeding management of the farm's animals are moderately satisfied. Findings from this study indicated that about 28% of farmers were illiterate. Due to inadequate biosecurity present on the farms, the highly alarming fact that 84% of farms had LSD problems, 13% had FMD problems, and the rest had problems with other diseases. When flocks got affected by contagious and virus diseases, it was concerning that only 22% of farms isolated the diseased animals. According to this survey, just about 11% of farm owners were aware of the long-term effects of antibiotic use. Only about 24% of people knew of the health hazards connected to steroid use. Compared to 5% of farm owners who are knowledgeable about microbial resistance, 93% of farm owners are ignorant about it. The use of steroids as a growth enhancer revealed an inversely significant link with the training and treatment of farm animals (p <0.01). The correlation between educational level and the overall biosecurity measure was inversely significant (p< 0.01). It was found that 63% of farms use steroids as growth enhancers for raising beef cattle due to the early profit. Dexamethasone injections and other steroid-group tablet formulations are used to artificially fatten cattle. The government and proper authority in the livestock industry could take action to tackle the current issues. Farms should be adaptable to climate change-related adjustments and scientific approaches to cattle farming practices.