Open Access Short Research Article

Comparison of the Immunogenicity and Pathogenicity of a Genetically Engineered Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Vaccine and Two Commercial Live Vaccines in Chickens with Maternal Antibodies

Erfan Ullah Chowdhury, Momota Rani Paul, Shukes Chandra Badhy, M. Rafiqul Islam

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 1-8

The objective of this study was to determine the immunogenicity and pathogenicity of an experimental infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) live vaccine, BD3-tc, derived by genetic engineering from a Bangladeshi very virulent IBDV strain. Two commercial live IBDV vaccines, D-78 and 228E, were included for comparison. Two-hundred 1-day-old commercial layer chickens were raised in relative isolation and at 14 days of age the chickens were divided into 4 groups in 4 separate houses. Three groups were vaccinated intraocularly with the BD3-tc or D-78 or 228E at 14 and 21 days of age and the fourth group served as an unvaccinated control. At 21, 28, and 35 days of age, chickens were individually weighed, bled, and necropsied. The bursa of Fabricius (BF) from each chicken was collected, weighed, formalin fixed, and examined histologically. The immunogenicity was evaluated by serum antibody titer to IBDV as measured by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The pathogenicity was analyzed by bursa/body-weight (B/Bw) ratio and gross and histopathological lesions in BF. The chickens were found to have high maternal antibody (mAb) titers (mean titer = 7324 on day 3). Following primary vaccination, no significant level of acquired antibody was observed in any of the vaccine groups. However, on day 35, two weeks after booster, the 228E group had nearly unchanged and the BD3-tc group had a slight increase of antibody titer. In contrast, antibody level in the D-78 group continued to decline. No significant changes in B/Bw ratios and bursal lesion scores were observed in any of the vaccine groups. Together, these findings show that high mAb titers in chicks can interfere with the take of IBDV vaccines, however, the 228E and BD3-tc vaccines are capable of breaking through the mAb at a relatively higher level as compared to the D-78.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Concentrate to Fresh Gmelina arborea Leaf Combinations on Haematological and Serum Biochemical Parameters of Rabbit Bucks

Terzungwe Ahemen, Onyilokwu Pius, Philip A. Addass

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 1-9

This study aimed to investigate the effects of concentrate on fresh Gmelina arborea leaf (FGAL) combinations on haematological and serum biochemical parameters of rabbit bucks. Twenty four (24) rabbit bucks of mixed breeds (New Zealand white x Chinchilla) with the average live weight of 852 g, aged between 12 and 14 weeks were subjected to a feeding trial for 14 weeks. The rabbits were randomly allocated into four treatments (each treatment contained 6 rabbits): Treatment 1 (100% concentrate: 0% FGAL), Treatment 2 (75% concentrate: 25% FGAL), Treatment 3 (50% concentrate: 50% FGAL), Treatment 4 (25% concentrate: 75% FGAL). The results obtained in this study showed that packed cell volume (PCV), white blood cell (WBC), haemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and white blood cell differentials were not significantly affected by the dietary treatments. Red blood cell (RBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean concentration haemoglobin (MCH) differed significantly (P<0.05) among treatments. Serum globulin, urea, creatinine and cholesterol were significantly (P<0.05) influenced by the dietary treatments, while total protein, albumin and glucose were not affected. The results revealed that fresh Gmelina arborea leaf in combination with concentrate had no adverse effects on haematological and serum biochemical parameters of rabbit bucks.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cytomorphology and Seasonal Hematological Parameters in Tegu Lizards (Salvator merianae) Raised in Captivity

Silvia N. Chamut, Osvaldo E. A. Arce

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 1-12

Aims: In this study, we describe cytomorphology and haematological values in Salvator merianae lizards bred in captivity, in order to establish reference values for health monitoring by veterinarians in animal production.

Study Design: Blood samples obtained from the tail vein of adult specimens at different times of the seasonal cycle were analysed. Cell morphology was characterised by light and electron microscopy and the corresponding blood counts were performed. Seasonal changes and annual averages of hematocrit, haemoglobin, erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets and percentage leukocyte formula were determined. In addition the blood was analysed by flow cytometry.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in El Manantial, Tucumán, Argentina with Salvatormerianae lizards, raised at the experimental farm of the Facultad de Agronomía y Zootecnia of the Universidad Nacional de Tucumán between 2014 and 2017.

Methodology: Routine methods of haematology adapted to nucleated erythrocytes were used for this study. Five males and five females individually identified were sampled throughout the annual cycle.

Results: Light microscopy showed 7 cell types: erythrocytes, neutrophils, azurophils, basophils, monocytes, lymphocytes and thrombocytes. Flow cytometry was used because it allows an accurate count of the number of white blood cells; an average of 7.2 x103/µl was obtained. Changes related to seasonality were observed in the hematocrit and haemoglobin. Significant differences in the annual average hematocrit and haemoglobin between the sexes were found with 42.5 ± 0.61% for males and 40.1 ± 0.60% for females. No seasonal changes in the values of leukocytes or the leukocyte differential count were found.

Conclusion: This study provides haematological reference values necessary for an adequate sanitary evaluation of farm-raised S. merianae.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Gas and Methane Production of Horse Grass and Calopo at Different Forage to Concentrate Ratios in Rabbits

U. K. Ozuo, S. N. Ukachukwu, M. O. Okpara

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 1-7

The in vitro gas production technique provides information about kinetics and fermentation characteristics of feedstuffs and diets, and it is a useful indicator of fecal microbial activity.

Aim: The aim of this study was to use the in vitro technique to study gas production kinetics and dry matter degradability of feed samples at different forage to concentrate (F:C) ratios using rabbit inoculum.

Materials and Methods: The treatments (T) were in a Completely Randomized Design with two forage sources namely Horse grass and Calopo mixed at 75:25 (T1) ratio and F:C ratios 75:25 (T2), 50:50 (T3), 25:75 (T4) and 100:0 (T5), respectively. Six New Zealand White rabbits (mean body weight [BW] = 0.86kg ±0.04) were used as inoculum donors.

Results: Crude protein of forages was 10.45 and 23.00 for Horse grass and Calopo respectively. The crude protein and crude fiber content of the supplementary concentrate was 17.01 and 6.00% respectively. Highest crude fiber (12.00) was also observed in Calopo. Diets 4 and 5 produced the highest (P<0.05) total gas (ml/200mgDM) and methane (ml/200mgDM) respectively, while in vitro degradability decreased with increasing supplementary concentrate (P<0.05). Sole forage diet resulted in highest dry matter degradability (6.90) and gas production (7.80).

Conclusion: It can be concluded that good quality forage, therefore, could reduce the need for concentrate supplementation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Tapioca Levels on Production of Swine

Md. Jahangir Alam, Sang-Suk Lee, Sung-Back Cho, Ki-Chang Nam, Ok-Hwa Hwang, Dong-Yun Choi, Seung-Hak Yang, Ha Guyn Sung

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 1-8

There is little definitive information available regarding tapioca’s effect on the swine performance and meat quality. Thus, this study was carried out. Thirty-six cross-bred [(Landrace × Yorkshire) × Duroc] growing-finishing swine with their average initial BW of 26.5±2.1 kg was used in this study. The animals were fed with control (no addition of tapioca), treatment 1 (T1 – 10% tapioca) and treatment 2 (T2 – 20% tapioca) for different periods (tapioca as-fed basis). The experimental period lasted for 98d. Carcass characteristics, physicochemical properties, meat composition and sensory test were not significantly different among treatments except for the carcass weight which was increased (p<0.05) in the tapioca diet groups. Swine fed with tapioca-replaced diet has no detrimental effects on growth performance or meat quality. Instead, it significantly increased the carcass weight. Therefore, we conclude that tapioca replacement of 20% can aid as alternative feed ingredient of energy source in improving carcass weight for growing-finishing swine.