Open Access Original Research Article

Occurrence of Multi Drug Resistant Commensal Escherichia coli in Apparently Healthy Lambs and Kids from Maiduguri, Northeastern Nigeria

E. Y. Balami, H. I. Abdulrahman, M. M. Gashua, H. B. Galadima, I. A. Gulani

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 1-10

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of multi-drugs resistant commensal Escherichia coli (E. coli) in apparently healthy kids and lambs from Maiduguri, Northeastern Nigeria.

Study Design: A cross sectional study was conducted using convenience sampling method.

Methodology: In all, 200 fecal samples were collected from apparently healthy lambs and kids using sterile swaps (100 samples each). The lambs and kids were grouped into 3 categories based on age which include 0 to ≤ 1 month, >1 to ≤ 2 months and >2 to ≤ 3 months. A total of 90 (45%) commensal E. coli isolates were detected using Standard bacteriological and biochemical tests. Kids had significantly (P<0.05) higher isolation rate (70%) compared to lambs (20%). A significant association and linear trend in the proportions of commensal E. coli isolates between the age categories was observed. Lambs and kids up to 1 month old 12 (13.3%) had lower isolation rate compared to the other age groups 2 months old 39 (83%) and 3 months old 39 (56.5%). Antibiogram pattern of the isolated commensal E. coli was evaluated against 10 antibiotics which showed high resistance against Pefloxacin (100%), Amoxicillin (97.7%), Chloramphenicol (94.4%), Ceftriaxone (93.3%), Cefuroxime (92.2%), Nitrofurantoin (67.8%) and Streptomycin (51.1%). The isolates were highly susceptible to Ciprofloxacin (95.5%) and Ofloxacin (95.5%). All isolates of the commensal E. coli90 (100%) showed varying multiple drugs resistance patterns ranging from 3 to 8 antibiotics.

Conclusion: These results indicated that commensal E. coli can be potential reservoirs for antibiotic resistance genes and there may be possibility of horizontal transmission to animals and humans. Using only effective antibiotics in management of E. coli infections is strongly recommended. Laws regulating prescriptions and dispensing of veterinary drugs ought to be fully implemented and there is need to create public awareness on dangers of indiscriminate use of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feed.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Baseline Study for Cadmium Concentrations in Blood of Goats in Some Communities of Bade, Northern Yobe, Nigeria

M. M. Gashua, J. Kabir, M. M. Suleiman, H. I. Abdulrahman

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 1-10

Aim: This study was carried out to evaluate levels of Cadmium (Cd) in goats as sentinels for Cd pollution in some farming communities in Bade Northern Yobe, Nigeria.

Study Design: The study was a cross sectional study.

Methodology: A total of 356 blood samples were collected from semi-intensively managed goats from 5 randomly selected wards in the study area. A total of 55 goats were sampled from Dagona, 72 from Katuzu, 78 from each of Lawan Musa and Sabon Gari and 73 from Usur/Dawayo wards. Sexes of the animals were noted during sampling. Concentration of blood cadmium was assayed using Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (GFAAS). The samples were digested using NH2:H2O2 wet digestion technique. Mean (±SEM) blood Cd concentrations of the sampled goats were 7.677±0.53, 3.835±0.47, 3.996±0.45, 2.810±0.45, and 3.314±0.46 µg/L for Dagona, Katuzu, Lawan Musa, Sabon Gari and Usur/Dawayo wards respectively. Goats from Dagona ward had significantly (P<0.05) higher mean blood Cd concentrations compared to other locations but there was no statistically significant difference in mean blood Cd levels between males and females.

Conclusion: The detection of Cd in the blood of most of the animals (99.4%) is suggestive of how widely distributed Cd is in the area and presence of Cd in blood of 349 (98.6%) goats at concentrations above the recommended normal levels of 0.185 µg/L by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) is worrisome. There is need to identify possible Cd emission sources in the study area in order to control contamination of the environment and hence minimize humans’ and animals’ exposure to the nephrotoxic metal.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Dietary Levels of Doum Palm Pulp Meal (Hyphaene thabaica) Supplementation on the Performance of Broiler Chickens

Abdulsalam Ibrahim, Magaji Muktar Yahya, Bah Sani Usman

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 1-8

The study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Doum palm pulp meal (Hyphaene thabaica)supplementation on growth performance in broiler chickens. A total of two hundred day old unsexed strain of Anak 2000 broiler chicks were subjected to 49-day study period. Chicks were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments with 10 birds per replicate and 40 birds per treatment in a completely randomized design (CRD). The levels of Doum palm inclusion were 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5% coded as (treatment 1 to 5) T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 respectively. The birds in all groups were reared under deep litter system; feed and water were provided ad-libitum. Dietary Doum palm was not significant (P>.05) in terms of weight gain and feed intake in the same vein, the feed conversion ratio was not significantly altered at the starter phase of the study. At the finisher phase weight gain and feed conversion ratio were significant at (P<.01) and (P = .05) respectively, while daily feed intake was not affected. Birds on T4 had the highest daily weight gain (43.75g) while those on T1 had the lowest (33.97g). The same trend was elicited for feed conversion ratio with T4 haven the inferior value (1.22) while T1 was (1.44). The economic analysis showed significant variation in feed cost per kg in terms of broiler production across treatment groups. Feed cost kg/gain appeared to be higher in T1 (₦ 516.17) while lowest in T4 (₦ 267.92) this showed that increased level of Doum palm pulp meal will not increase the cost of production. Doum palm supplementation in broiler diets could improve growth performance especially in the level of 10.0% that was found to be better than the control and other treatment groups. It is therefore recommended that 10% level of inclusion of Doum palm pulp meal could be used in compounding broiler feeds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Diminazene Diaceturate (veriben®) on Serum and Clinico-pathological Changes in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus) Experimentally Infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei

A. M. Abdullahi, D. Iliyasu, H. B. Galadima, A. W. Mbaya, U. I. Ibrahim, I. Wiam

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 1-14

The study was designed to determine effects of diminazene diaceturate (veriben®) on the serum and clinico-pathological changes in guinea pigs experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei (T. brucei brucei). Thirty apparently healthy unsexed guinea pig weighing between 5-10 kg were used for the study. Trypanosoma brucei brucei and 4 Albino rats used as donorswere obtained from NAITOR (Nigerian Institute of Trypanosome and Onchcerciasis) Kaduna State Nigeria. Guinea Pigs were randomly allocated into 6 groups designated as A, B, C, D, E and F. All the infected (A,B and C) had prepatent period of 16 days with similar level of parasitaemia of 45.7 ± 3.38 and clinical sign observed are pyrexia, pale feet, snout, anaemia and emaciation. Mean chloride, bicarbonate, sodium, calcium, potassium and magnesium serum ion concentration level decreased significantly following establishment of parasitemia. These changes reverted to their pre-infection values by day 28 in all the affected animals following treatment with diminazine diaceturate (veriben®) at 3.5 mg/kg and 7.0 mg/kg BW. Liver, kidney, lungs, and spleen samples were taking from humanly sacrificed guinea pig and fixed in 10% formalin. The histopathological examination from positive control animals showed no visible area of lesions but in contrast with the infected negative control group revealed gross distortion of tissue architecture. Observations from the treated animals showed less distortions of tissue architecture this might have been aided by administered drugs at 7.0 mg/kg. In conclusion, evidence has shown that the administration of Veriben® at the dose rate of 3.5 mg/kg and 7.0 mg/kg have the potentials of modulating the state of anaemia, immunosuppression and serum electrolytes levels, gross and histopathological changes in trypanosome-infected guinea pigs in a dose dependent manner.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-nutritional Factors of Composite Mango (Mangifera indica) Fruit Reject Meal and Its Value in the Nutrition of Finisher Broiler Chickens

Kanan Tyohemba Orayaga, Oluwabiyi Ikeolu Atanda Oluremi, Comfort Dooshima Tuleun, Silvanus Ngbede Carew

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 1-7

Aim: Investigation was made to ascertain the level of some anti-nutrients in composite mango fruit reject meal (MFRM) and its effect on the performance of finisher broiler chickens.

Methodology: Mango fruit reject meal was analysed for anti-nutritional factors and incorporated into finisher broiler diets at 0, 11, 12, 13 and 14% to obtain five diets. Two hundred 28-day-old Arbor Acre broiler chickens were randomly allocated to the five dietary treatments in a completely randomised design (CRD), and fed for 35 days.

Results: Anti-nutritional factor levels were; tannin 2.10%, phytate 0.48%, saponin 2.96%, flavonoid 3.77% and oxalate was 3.35%. Mean final body weights and daily weight gains were significantly depressed (P<0.05) at 11% and 13% level of MFRM inclusion but similar to the control at 12% and 14% MFRM. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) for feed intake and digestibility of nutrients among the treatment groups. The cost/kg weight gain was not significantly affected (P>0.05) as well.

Conclusion: Mango fruit reject meal supported growth performance of finisher broiler chickens at 12% and 14% level comparable to maize, and 14% inclusion of MFRM was optimal.