Aim: The present study was investigated to assess the antibacterial potential of aqueous neem leaves extracts (ANLE) on spermatozoa quality in extended porcine semen.
Materials and Methods: Fresh semen was collected from a mature and intact boar (age, breed, body condition score, health status) using the glove-hand technique. The collected semen samples were diluted and allotted to six treatments with three replicates per treatment in a completely randomized design and evaluated at 0, 24 and 48 h of refrigeration at 17°C. Semen quality parameters such as progressive motility (%), viability (%), morphology (%), pH, acrosome integrity (%), and bacteria load (×104 CFU/mL) were evaluated.
Results and Discussion: At 48 h, a significant difference (p < 0.05) in motility was observed across the treatments with Treatment 1 giving the highest mean value (84.67±2.40) and Treatment 6 (100% ANLE) gave the least value (70.00±0.00). At 48 h, there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in viability across the treatments. Treatment 2 and Treatment 3 (25% ANLE) though with a significant difference between the means has given the closest mean value (79.67±0.33 and 76.67±0.67 respectively) to Treatment 1 (80.00±0.00). At 48 h, a significant difference (p < 0.05) in morphology was also observed across the treatments. Treatment 2 and Treatment 3 (25% ANLE), though with a significant difference between the means has given the closest mean values (81.33±0.67 and 79.33±0.33 respectively) to Treatment 1 (82.00±1.00). At 48 h, a significant difference (p < 0.05) in acrosome integrity, as well as pH, was also observed across the treatments. The general trend for bacteria load is a decline as the level of ANLE increases across the treatments at 48 h of refrigeration.
Conclusion: These findings suggest that 25% of ANLE can be used in boar semen extension up to 48 h of storage at 17°C.
Stepwise multiple regression technique was used to predict body weight from linear body measurements in the savannah muturu cattle (Bos brachyceros). Sexual dimorphism was a significant (P˂0.05) source of variation for body weight (BW), ear length (EL), body length (BL), chest girth (CG), horn length (HL) and height at withers, with higher values reported for the males. Correlation coefficients between body weight and linear body measurements and within linear body measurements were all positive and significant (P˂0.01) irrespective of the sex of the cattle. The regression technique established highly reliable equations for predicting body weight from chest girth, body length and horn length. The best model for predicting body weight was BW = -72.908 + 1.738 CG + 3.511 HL. Information derived from this study may find application in selection for improvement of traits of economic importance in the muturu cattle.
The objective of the present study was to investigate the productivity of utilizing barley as a Flushing ration with an energizing source and soybean meal-based diets as a Flushing ration with a protein source the breeding and sexual behaviors in Markhoz Goat. In this study, 42 three and half-year old goat (48±1.5 Kg) with the record of giving birth to two kids and 5 three-year old (87±2.4 Kg) rams were used. The goats were divided into three treatment groups of A (i.e., the receivers of Barley seeds), B (i.e., the receivers of soybean meal-based diets), and a control group of C with 14 goats in each group. In addition, three kids were utilized randomly in each group. The goat received the Flushing ration three weeks before and three weeks after sexual intercourse. Therefore, group A goats were fed 600 grams of Barley seeds and group B goats were fed 600 grams of soybean. The results showed that the goats in the treatment group showed sexual receptivity behavior earlier than the control group goats; anyway, the difference between these groups was not significant. In addition, the receptivity power (i.e., the number of successful jumping permission) and the amount of estrogen, calcium, as well as magnesium levels were not significantly different at pro-estrus and estrus stages. However, the amount of serum phosphorous and the new-born kid’s weight were reported to be significant (p < .05) in the treatment groups. The present study showed that Flushing ration along with both energizing and protein sources improve the livestock’s health and sexual behavior, and also such supplements have a positive influence on breeding rate and on the weight of kids.
Diseases in animals not only constitute health challenges in man but are also a major source of economic losses. Hence, the proper identification, understanding, management and documentation of diseases prevalent in animal husbandry would go a long way in controlling the dissemination of zoonotic diseases and reduce the financial implication on the economy as aimed by this survey. An abattoir survey to determine the prevalence of zoonotic diseases encountered amongst animals slaughtered was conducted between January, 2014 and December, 2016 at the Oja-tuntun slaughter slab in Ogbomoso town. Data retrieved was analyzed and results presented as tables and figures were appropriate. A total of thirteen thousand, one hundred and seventy-two (13,172) animals were examined and slaughtered from which 11,903 (90.4%) were bovine and 1,269 (9.6%) were caprine. The multi-year study indicated the following incident of abattoir identified diseases and conditions: pneumonia (22.8%), tuberculosis (25.3%) and fascioliasis (34.0%); pimply-gut (14.2%), pneumonia (29.7%) and fascioliasis (43.2%); pimply-gut (18.1%), tuberculosis (27.7%) and fascioliasis (28.4%) as the most prevalent diseases in the years 2014, 2015 and 2016 respectively. The survey also revealed a significant (p<0.05) higher rate of occurrence of fascioliasis than the other diseases amongst animals slaughtered. In line with these findings, there is a need for the veterinary and public health officers in slaughterhouses to be more vigilant in the identification of diseased animals; prevention and control of zoonotic diseases as well as the need for the government to establish a well-defined compensation plan for the affected farmers.
The experiment was conducted at Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University Poultry Farm for 4 weeks to find out the effect of feed restriction (FR) on growth performance, haematological parameters and carcass traits of broiler chicken. After one week of common brooding, 150 broiler chicks were equally and randomly divided into 5 treatments and each treatment was further sub-divided 3 times consisting of 10 chicks per replicate. The FR of dietary treatments were applied at 4, 7, 10, 13 and 0% (control group) designated as T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 respectively. The results obtained showed that control groups (fed ad libitum) consumed significantly (P<0.05) the highest feed (2191 g) than those in FR groups. However, the live weight (LW) was significantly (P< 0.05) highest under 4% FR group. The control group significantly (P < 0.05) had the poorest Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) (1.31), while the best feed efficiency (FE) (1.20) was found in broilers under 13% FR. Cholesterol levels were not affected (P>0.05) significantly by FR application, but significant (P<0.05) difference was recorded in case of glucose and haemoglobin values across the FR treated groups. 13% FR group showed the lowest value of glucose (158 mg/dl) than other FR groups and control group. This study revealed that FR decreases blood glucose level, while the blood haemoglobin level was found to be significantly (P<0.05) highest in 10% FR group (15.2 g/dl) and lowest in control group (13.17 g/dl). It was observed that the major haematological parameters of FR were similar compared to the 0% FR group. The Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) was significantly (P<0.05) affected by FR treatments. The BCR of 4% FR group ranked the best (1.55) followed by 7 and 10% (1.51), 13% (1.50) and control (1.45). In addition, all the FR groups are economically benefited due to lower feed cost than the control group. This study showed that 4% FR would be potentially beneficial for broiler production without compromising the productivity in the local condition of Bangladesh.