Aim: the aim of this paper was to investigate the histopathological changes in the liver, kidney and lung during urea toxicity in cattle.
Place and Duration of Study: In September 2015, Alslait South Dairy Farm, Khartoum, Sudan reported sudden death of some cattle occurred after fed wet concentrated feed prepared from molasses and urea.
Methodology: Clinical history and clinical signs were recorded. Among 12 cattle of affected shed, 9 (male=2, female =7) cattle showed clinical sign and within 2-3 hours of onset of clinical sign 7cattle were dead. Postmortem examination was done and liver, kidney, lung and feed samples were collected and sent for laboratory analysis.
Result: Results revealed that the male were less prone to be affected (16.7%) with no case fatality (0%) in comparison to highly affected female (50.7%) with very high case fatality (77.7%). On postmortem examination, congested liver and kidney, gastroenteritis with hemorrhagic intestine, edema of lung were observed. Histopathological results revealed necrosis of hepatic cells and renal proximal tubules with dissociation of hepatic cord and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the kidney, congestion of the pulmonary alveolar capillaries, bronchial haemorrhage and emphysema and interstitial pneumonia.
Toxicological testing was done on the supplied feed samples and non-protein nitrogen was calculated as 28.18%.
Conclusion: in Sudan, urea is used in urea molasses straw preparation as an effective and inexpensive source of non-protein nitrogen (NPN) in feed supplements in the ruminant. Cautions might be taken as urea poisoning may occur in ruminants when incorrect dose or feeds are inappropriately mixed with urea. The onset of the clinical picture may start in a matter of minutes to hours after consumption of urea and in most cases it is acute and can cause heavy mortality.
This study is aimed to evaluate the growth performance, nutrient retention, dressed and organ weights and economics of production using toasted Daniellia oliveri seed meal (TDSM) as a source of protein substitute with soybean meal (SBM) in broiler diets for 56 days. One hundred and fifty (150), one-day-old unsex Arbor Acre broiler chicks were randomly distributed into five treatments with 30 chicks each, replicated three times (10 chicks each) in a completely randomized design. Daniellia oliveri seed meal protein replaced soybean meal (SBM) at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%. Replacing SBM with TDSM protein up to 20% did not affect (P>0.05) growth, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR). The substitution shows reduction in cost of feed intake per bird and percentage saving cost per bird of 13.55, 18.26, 31.77 and 33.2 at dietary 5, 10, 15 and 20% TDSM levels of inclusion. The nutrient digestibility dressed weight, gizzard, abdominal fat, liver, heart and pancreas were not affected (P > 0.05) by incorporating TDSM up to 20% in broiler diets. The results suggest that 20% inclusion level of toasted Daniellia oliveri seed meal could be effectively used without adverse effects on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, dressed and organ weights and with high production saving cost.
An eight week feeding trial was conducted at the Poultry Unit of the Teaching and Research Farm, Ambrose Alli University Ekpoma to evaluate the haematological and serum biochemical indices of broiler chickens fed varying levels of sundried cassava peel meal supplemented with enzyme (MAXIGRAIN). A total of one hundred and twenty day-old Anak 2000 broiler chicks was used for this experiment. Forty chicks were randomly selected based on their average initial weights to each of the four treatment diets. (T1 to T4) with T1 serving as a control and T2 to T4 having an inclusion level of Sundried cassava peel meal (SDCPM) at 20, 40, and 60% replacement levels for maize with Maxigrain® enzyme supplementation at the rate of 100mg/kg in a complete randomized design (CRD). The chicks were brooded and fed for four weeks with commercial starter diet. Thereafter they were fed formulated finisher diets for 4 weeks. The result on the haematological parameters revealed that haemoglobin was significantly (P<0.05) higher from birds fed 40% sundried cassava peel meal plus maxigrain supplement (SDCPM + Maxg) with the mean value of 41.68g/dl. Red blood cell was also significantly (P<0.05) highest (7.35x106/ml) from birds fed 40% (SDCPM + Maxg). MCV and Platelet values were also significantly (P<0.05) influenced by the treatment diets with highest values of 59.58fl and 3.21x103/mm3 respectively. Neutrophil and monocyte values were significantly (P<0.05) higher from birds fed 40% (SDCPM + Maxg) with an average values of (29.02% and 4.33%). Serum biochemical indices of broiler chickens fed the treatment diets showed that glucose and cholesterol were significantly (P<0.05) influenced by the various dietary treatments with highest values of 113.68mmol/L and 116.20mmol/L recorded from birds placed on the control diet the values were within the normal range. The overall result in this study showed that sundried cassava peel meal supplemented with maxigrain can successfully be included in broiler ration up to 40% level without any adverse effect on the blood quality of broiler chickens.
The study examined the effects of feeding different protein diets on growth performance and carcass quality of Snail, Archachatina marginata at the snail unit, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources Management Enugu State University of Science and Technology. Sixty clinically healthy snails were allotted to four treatment diets designated as T1 the control, contained all the ingredients, T2 contained only soybean meal, T3 only groundnut cake and T4 only fishmeal as the main protein source. Each treatment was replicated thrice in a Completely Randomized Design. Data were collected on weight gain feed intake using digital electronic weighing scale (Atonic electronic scale), shell length and shell width were measured using venire calliper while carcass characteristics were done using an Atomic electronic scale. Data collected were subjected to one-way analysis of variance using SPSS version 20 (2012). Findings revealed … statistical differences (P<0.05) were found in weight gain, shell characteristics as well as carcass characteristics. The result also showed that protein rich in calcium sources are ideal for snail production as the edible portion, visceral weight and shell weight showed statistical differences (P<0.05) from T3 (85 g, 55.38 g, 41g) to T4 (80.6 g, 45.32 g, 44 g) then T2 (75 g, 42.08 g, 37 g) and T1 (71 g, 40.37 g, 34 g) in that order.
The microbial loads of processed beef in Jos abattoir were investigated in this study, as well as the hygiene practices of butchers. Fresh beef samples were randomly collected from Jos-south abattoir, Plateau State, Nigeria. A total of twenty samples were collected in a separate sample bag. They were kept in cool box filled with ice and transported to the microbiology laboratory of Federal College of Animal Health and Production Technology (FCAH&PT), National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Nigeria for analyses. Meat samples weighing one gram each were grinded to fine particles using mortar and pestles and mixed with the normal saline solution to make 10 milliliters and diluted serially into ten test tubes. One milliliter of inoculum was taken from the test tube using sterile pipette and poured into sterile Petri dish. 20 milliliters of sterile nutrient agar was poured into each sterile Petri dish, distributed and mixed evenly. The Petri dishes with molten inoculated media were allowed to solidify. All samples inoculated in nutrient agar were incubated at 37ºC for 24 hours in order to get the viable bacterial counts. Petri dishes containing 30 - 300 colonies on nutrient agar plate were selected. These were counted using colony counter, enumerated and expressed in CFU/g/ml of meat samples from every location respectively. Incubated nutrient agar plates were examined for yellow and amber growth. Isolates were examined microscopically using Gram staining procedure for Gram- positive cocci in clusters. These suggested the presence of Staphylococcus species. The incubated Eosin Methylene blue agar (EMB Agar) plates were examined for characteristic dark centered greenish and translucent colorless amber growth which suggest the presence of Escherichia coli, and translucent, amber colored or colorless growth which suggest the presence of Salmonella or Shigella species. The isolates were examined microscopically using Gram-staining procedure for Gram-negative straight short rods which suggested the presence of Escherichia coli and Gram-negative long rods which suggests the presence of Salmonella and Shigella species. The growth on Mac-Conkey plates were examined for pink colonies for Escherichia coli which is a lactose fermenter and amber colonies for Salmonella or Shigella species. The incubated Salmonella-Shigella agar plates were examined for colourless colony with black centered growth which suggest the presence of Salmonella species (hydrogen sulphite producing bacteria), pink growth which suggests the presence of Escherichia coli (lactose fermenter) and colorless colony which suggests the presence of Shigella species (non-lactose fermenter and non-hydrogen sulphite producing bacteria). The biochemical characteristics were carried out according to the method described by [14,15]. Escherichia coli had the highest percentage load of 34.1%, Salmonella spp. with 31.8%, Staphylococcus aureus had 20.5% and Shigella spp. had 13.6%. To ascertain the hygiene level of butchers in the abattoir, a total of 50 copies of the questionnaire were distributed to abattoir attendants/butchers in Jos-south Local Government and 43 out of this where retrieved. The response of 86% was considered sufficient for analysis in this study. This study captured the general information on the respondents such as gender, age and educational status. In this case, all the respondents (100%) were males with age range 18-44 years.