Open Access Case study

Clinical Outbreak of Dermatophilosis in Cattle in Kebbi State Nigeria and Review of Literature

M. S. Jibrin, N. N. Pilau, S. Garba, Z. Shehu, U. S. Ahmad, M. L. Sonfada, Y. U. Dabai

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 1-7

This case report described a clinical outbreak of dermatophilosis among cattle in a farm in Yauri Local Government Area of Kebbi State, Nigeria. Thirteen (22.4%) out of fifty-eight animals were symptomatic for dermatophilosis. The diagnosis of dermatophytosis was made by clinical signs present, characteristic appearance and locations of skin lesions and the macro and micro morphology of the Dermatophilus bacterium. Infection could be related to exposure to ticks which were observed in the farm and associated climatic and demographic predisposing factors. Infected animals were treated using two administrations of long-acting oxytetracycline at 20 mg/kg BW intramuscularly three days apart and ivermectin at 200 µg/kg subcutaneously. After three weeks, there was the resolution of the papules and crusts lesions leaving only soft pink-greyish scars on which hair regrowth was clearly visible.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hematology and Blood Serum Chemistry of Albino Rat Fed Variously Processed False Yam (Icacina trichantha) Root Tuber at Varying Replacement Levels for Maize

S. E. Okosun, A. S. Eguaoje, E. T. E. Ehebha

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 1-8

The experiment was conducted at the Animal science laboratory, Teaching and Research Farm, Ambrose Alli University to evaluate the effect of feeding differently processed false yam tuber meal on the hematology and blood serum chemistry of Albino rats. Fresh tubers of Icacina trichantha were collected from Ekpoma environ. The tubers were washed then chopped and were differently processed by oven drying, sun drying as well as parboiling and sun drying. All processed tubers were then milled and an aliquot was collected and labeled before taken to the laboratory. 36 unsexed albino rats of an average age of 6 weeks were randomly allotted to four treatment namely: Corn starch-egg mixture as the control while diet 2, 3 and 4 were Oven dried, Sun dried and parboiled-sun dried Icacina tricantha in a completely Randomized Design with three replicates. The result on the hematology showed that Hb and PCV were higher (P<0.05) among rats fed oven dried false yam. WBC was higher (P<0.05) among rats fed parboiled sundried false yam comparable to control. MCH, MCHC, and RDW were higher (P<0.05) in that fed oven dried false yam. Platelet value was higher (P<0.05) in those fed sun-dried false yam. MPV, PWD, and neutrophil values were higher (P<0.05) among rats fed parboiled sundried false yam. lymphocyte was higher among those fed diet 3. Serum chemistry showed that globulin, urea, and creatinine were significantly affected. It is concluded therefore that the inclusion of oven dried false yam meal as the substitute for maize in the diet enhances the blood quality of Albino rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Changes in Gut Microflora, Blood Glucose Level and Lipid Profile of Broiler Chickens Fed with Murraya koenigii Supplemented Diet

T. S. P. Jayaweera, H. G. C. L. Gamage, R. M. R. B. Mahanama, W. U. N. T. S. Ellepola, D. G. Yasawathie, H. A. D. Ruwandeepika

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 1-9

Aims: The emergence of multiple drug resistance to human pathogenic organisms has necessitated the search for new antimicrobial substances from natural sources including plants. Also, the non communicable diseases such as diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases represent an enormous, medical, social and economic burden to the public and high cost of synthetic drugs used for these diseases have become more exorbitant. As a remedial measure, attempts have been made to find alternatives with special attention to utilization of similar compounds of natural origin. This study was conducted to assess the effect of feeding curry leave on blood glucose level and lipid profile in broiler chicken and the antibacterial effect of curry leaves on gut microflora of broiler chicken.

Study Design: Sixty, 28 days old broiler birds were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments with three replicates of five birds per each replicate in a completely randomised design. Maize and soybean meal based control feed and three test diets prepared from the control feed by incorporating curry leaves at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% levels served as four dietary treatments. Feeding continued until slaughtering at 42 days of age.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the Livestock unit of the University Farm and the sample analysis was done at the Laboratory of Livestock Production, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka.

Methodology: Blood samples were collected at slaughter on 42nd day and lipid profile analysis (total cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins (HDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and Triglycerides) and blood glucose analysis was done. At sacrifice 25 g of gut content was collected aseptically from each bird for microbiological investigation and total bacterial enumeration was done. Data were analyzed using SPSS and ANOVA followed by a Tukey’s post-hoc test.

Results: Serum total cholesterol level was significantly (P<0.05) lowered by 6.0%,12.4% and 15% in birds fed with 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% curry leave diets respectively compared to the control. There was no significant difference in triglycerides and HDL levels among treatments. LDL level was significantly (P< 0.05) lowered by 26.0, 30.7 and 34.6% respectively in birds fed with 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% curry leave levels. Curry leave significantly reduced the serum glucose level by 10, 13 and 16% in birds with 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% curry leave levels respectively. Microbiological study revealed a statistically significant reduction of gut microbes in broiler chicken. When compared to the microbial count in control (8.9x108 CFU/g), the count was reduced by 37.2% (5.6 x 108 CFU/g) in 1% group and by 49.1% (4.5 x 108 CFU/g) in 1.5% group. The reduction (8.5 x 108 CFU/g) was not significant with 0.5% curry leave level.

Conclusion: Curry leaves exerted hypoglycaemic and hypocholesterolemic effects in broiler chickens. There was ample evidence of antimicrobial effect as the inclusion levels of curry leaves increased across the diets.

Open Access Original Research Article

Therapeutic Evaluation of Terminalia macroptera (Guill. & Perr.) Stembark Extract in Experimental Avian Coccidiosis

M. H. Garba, G. Yusuf, A. O. Abdul-Majeed, M. L. Sherifat, L. J. Bulus, J. Ajayi, L. M. Hafsa

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 1-9

Seventy per cent (70% ) of Terminalia macroptera stem bark, methanol extract was administered to four groups A,B,C and D of a day old broiler chickens with each group consisting of five(5) chicks. Different doses of 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kgbw corresponding to 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 ml of the dissolved extract were administered to the respective groups. Groups E, F and G were the other groups that were infected but not treated (Negative control), infected and treated with the Standard drug (TolacoxR) and Treated but not infected respectively. There was a significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) in the Oocyst count (x103) between the infected and treated with the extract compared to the negative control. While the negative control was observed to manifest watery and bloody stool, high lesion score and high faecal count, the trend seemed to be reversed by the administration of the various doses of the extract on daily basis for 28 consecutive days. The faecal count in the treated groups was found to fall down to 2.1, 4.0, 1.7 and 0.7 x 103/g in the 50, 100,150 and 200mg/kgbw doses administered respectively, when compared to the 36.9 x 10 3/g obtained in the negative control. Also, the efficacy of the extract was observed to be dose dependent, as the dose of 200mg/kgbw was found to reduce the faecal count in the infected group to 0.7 as compared to the 0.8 x 10 3/g in the standard drug.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate Composition of Sun-Dried Rumen Digesta from Goat Slaughtered in Zuru Central Slaughterhouse, Kebbi State, Nigeria

A. M. Sakaba, S. M. Isgogo, A. U. Hassan, U. Z. Sanchi

Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Page 1-5

Biochemical studies with a view to assess the organic and inorganic content of Sun-Dried Rumen Digesta from goat slaughtered in Zuru central slaughterhouse were carried out. Four values for each nutrient were collected according to samples analyzed. The results of mean percentages showed that the samples contained 5.51±0.28 moisture, 15.35 ± 0.35 crude protein, 5.51 ± 0.29 lipids, 14.44 ± 0.82 ash, 18.44 ± 0.58 fiber, and 40.70 ± 4.22 Nitrogen Free Extract. The inorganic contents were 2.46 ± 0.02 sodium, 0.64 ± 0.01 potassium, 0.83 ± 0.03 magnesium, 0.57 ± 0.03 calcium and 1.29 ±0.02 phosphorus. The results indicated that rumen digesta from goat slaughtered in Zuru central slaughterhouse has nutritional qualities that could provide livestock producers with organic and inorganic nutrients for enhanced livestock nutrition. Therefore the Sun-Dried Rumen Digesta from goat is recommended for feeding livestock in the study area