Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences <p><strong>Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/AJRAVS/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all aspects of Animal and Veterinary sciences. By not excluding papers based on novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open-access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> <p>This is an open-access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.</p> <p>Every issue will consist of a minimum of 5 papers. Each issue will be running, and all officially accepted manuscripts will be immediately published online. The state-of-the-art running issue concept gives authors the benefit of 'Zero Waiting Time' for the officially accepted manuscripts to be published. This journal is an international journal and its scope is not confined by the boundary of any country or region.</p> Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences en-US Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences Ehrlichia canis Infection Induced Chronic Kidney Disease in a Labrador Retriever and Its Management: A Case Report <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Chronic kidney disease is irreversible, progressive and most common form of kidney disease in dogs. Canine ehrlichiosis is caused by gram negative intracellular bacteria <em>Ehrlichia canis</em>.</p> <p><strong>Case Presentation: </strong>A 7-year old Labrador retriever male dog weighing around 35 kg was presented to the Madras Veterinary College Teaching Hospital with a history of inappetence, vomiting, polyuria and polydipsia from fifteen days. The dog was fully vaccinated and dewormed. On general clinical examination, all vital parameters were within normal range except elevated temperature (103.8°F). The hematological findings revealed mild thrombocytopenia and hypochromasia. The serum biochemistry revealed increased creatinine level (3.68 mg/dl). The blood pressure was measured using Doppler device which revealed secondary hypertension. A blood smear examination was found to be negative.</p> <p><strong>Case Discussion:</strong> The animal was treated for chronic kidney failure. Even then animal was going down and not taking feed. The blood sample was sent for Molecular PCR which confirmed presence of <em>Ehrlichia canis</em>. Then animal was treated for Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis to control <em>Ehrlichia canis</em> induced renal failure. Then there was little progress in condition of the animal. The animal was maintained with a renal diet.</p> M. Chandrasekar S. Savitha Vaidehi Pasumarthi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-06-10 2022-06-10 1 5 Main and Interactive Effects of Calcium and Xanthophyll Supplementation on the Laying Performance, Internal and External Qualities of Isa Brown Hen Eggs <p>The study investigated the main and interactive effects of calcium and xanthophyll supplementation on the laying performance, internal and external qualities of Isa brown hen eggs. One hundred and forty-four points of lay hens were used in a factorial experiment. They had calcium and xanthophyll as the co-factors each with three qualitative levels. For calcium, the levels were; no calcium, calcium from egg shell and calcium from snail shell. For xanthophyll, the levels were no xanthophyll, xanthophyll from pepper, xanthophyll from carrot. There were nine treatment combinations each replicated four times, making 36 experimental units with four hens per battery cage unit. Data collected were analyzed using genstat package. Significant means were separated using least significant difference (LSD). Results showed that neither calcium supplementation nor xanthophyll supplementation had any significant effect on feed intake, hen day production, egg weight and feed per dozen egg (P&gt;0.05). However, there was significant interaction between calcium and xanthophyll supplementation for egg weight and feed per dozen egg laid (P&lt;0.05). The largest eggs were laid by supplementation with calcium from snail shell and xanthophyll from pepper (59.31 g). The haugh unit was significantly affected by either calcium supplementation or xanthophyll supplementation. Yolk colour was only affected by xanthophylls supplementation with the deepest colour (13.58) recorded when hens were offered xanthophyll from pepper (P&lt;0.05). Significant interaction (P&lt;0.05) were recorded for both haugh unit and yolk colour. The highest haugh unit (93.70) was recorded among hens not supplemented with ether calcium or xanthophyll, Yolk colour was consistently and significantly deeper among hens that received xanthophylls from pepper whether supplemented with no calcium or supplemented with calcium from either egg shell or snail shell (P&lt;0.05). It was concluded that egg weight can be improved by offering extra calcium from snail shell supplemented with pepper to hens outside feed. Again supplementing hens diets with pepper alone or in addition with either calcium from snail or egg shell supplementation would result in deeper yolk colour that is always the choice of consumers.</p> J. I. Imouokhome J. O. Oyedeji A. D. Sagay D. Nworu M. O. Omatsuli ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-06-22 2022-06-22 6 14 Mycoplasma bovis Seroprevalence in Khartoum State-Sudan <p><strong>Background:</strong><em> Mycoplasma bovis</em> causes several diseases in cattle. It contributes in chronic pneumoniae and mastitis so it causes economical losses.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> Serological surveillance of <em>Mycoplasma bovis</em> in Khartoum state, Sudan.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Serum samples (No.180) were collected randomly and tested using BIO-X <em>M. bovis </em>antibody ELISA Kit.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The seroprevalence of <em>M. bovis </em>was 7.2% (13 out of 180). The cattle aging 2 to 5year recorded the highest seroprevalence (9.1%), followed by less than 2 year-old (6.6%) and older than 5 year-old (5.6%). Based on gender distribution, females record 8.8% seropositive of <em>M. bovis </em>antibodies in comparison of 5.5% of the males. There is correlation between serum tests and gender (.391) with confidence intervals 95%, P value .05. The correlation between serum tests and age of tested group was (.839) with confidence intervals 95% with P value .05.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>These findings showed that <em>M. bovis</em> is existed and special consideration must be taken to control the disease. No previous serological investigation for the disease has been attempts in Sudan.</p> Raghad A. H. Onsa Hussam Aldeen Mustafa Abdelrazig Bilal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-07-06 2022-07-06 15 19 Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-cured Nalidixic Acid Resistant 85-kb Plasmid Salmonella gallinarum Immunoglobulin G Response in Brown Layer Hens <p><strong>Aim:</strong> Fowl typhoid vaccination is a necessary complement to farm hygiene in reducing antimicrobial resistance caused by extensive prophylaxis of antibiotics in poultry. This study was undertaken to develop a vaccine candidate from a virulent strain by plasmid-curing.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>The research was carried out in the Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, University of Nigeria Nsukka, for six months.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Thirty day-old pullets were divided into three groups of ten birds each. This comprised a negative control group (unvaccinated) (NEG), a live SG9R vaccine positive group (SG9R), and a nalidixic acid resistant plasmid-cured 85-kb plasmid <em>Salmonella gallinarum (NAR).</em> Plasmid curing of the virulent strain was done by incubating in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and loss of the 85-kb plasmid was identified and determined on agarose gel electrophoresis. Vaccination was done subcutaneously at 4 and 7 weeks of age, followed by challenge with the virulent <em>S. gallinarum. </em>IgG was measured using Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The scalability of the SDS-cured nalidixic acid resistant 85kb plasmid <em>Salmonella gallinarum</em> immunity was demonstrated by vaccinating layer birds and comparing the humoral immunity with that of a commercial fowl typhoid vaccine (SG9R).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There were higher IgG levels in the NAR group than the SG9R group. Protection was above 70 % in the vaccinated groups.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The outcome of this present study shows that vaccination with viable cells of sodium dodecyl sulfate- cured nalidixic acid resistant 85-kb plasmid <em>Salmonella gallinarum</em> (NAR) provided layer birds with protective humoral immunity against subsequent challenge with the parent virulent strain containing the 85-kb plasmid.</p> Ogochukwu P. Offor Ngozi Offor Damian C. Odimegwu Wilfred I. Ugwuoke Ebele B. Onuigbo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-08-01 2022-08-01 20 25 Inclusion Levels of Bitter (Vernonia amygdalina) Leaf Meal on Meat and Sensory Qualities of Broiler Chickens <p>Feed constitutes the greatest cost input in livestock production. Feed costs continue to increase due to high inflation rates which impact negatively on livestock production in developing countries. Researchers continue to work toward reducing cost by sourcing for low-cost, unconventional feed ingredients to boost livestock production. This experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of inclusion levels of&nbsp; Bitter Leaf Meal (BLM) on meat and sensory characteristics of broiler chickens. Four dietary treatments were formulated thus: Treatment 1/Control (0% BLM), Treatment 2 (5% BLM), Treatment 3 (7.5% BLM), Treatment 4 (10% BLM). Two hundred and forty, 2 week old broiler chicks were obtained and randomly allotted to each treatment in a completely randomised design making 60 birds per treatment with 3 replicates of 20 birds each. Feed and water were given <em>ad libitum</em> for 8 weeks after which four birds from each replicate were randomly selected, fasted overnight and slaughtered. The prime cuts, meat and sensory qualities were evaluated and data obtained were statistically analysed. There was no significant difference between the cooking loss of drumstick of treatment 1(Control) and other treatments fed graded levels of BLM. However cooking loss for breast was significantly higher in treatment 4 (10% BLM) at 24.7, and treatments 1 to 3 recording 21.29, 18.72, and 18.97 respectively. For thigh, cooking loss was significantly lower in treatment 4 at 22.14 while values for other treatments were similar. There was no significant difference among all the treatments for oxidative rancidity and pH. Water Holding Capacity was significantly lower in treatments 3 (7.5%BLM) and 4 (10%) BLM with values of 61.11 and 66.44 2 while treatments 1 and 2 had significantly higher values of 75.00. There were no significant differences among treatments for Colour, Aroma, Tenderness, Texture and Overall Acceptability. Only treatment 4 (10% BLM) had significantly lower value for Juiciness. Flavour was significantly higher in treatments 1 (0% BLM) and 3 (7.5% BLM) with values of 5.6 and 5.7 while the other treatments were similar. Results obtained showed that dietary inclusion of BLM between 5-7.5% generally had no deleterious effects on meat and sensory characteristics of broiler chickens.</p> Adelowo Olayinka Victoria Jude Obi Okpara Oshibanjo, Olusegun Debola Abubakar Salihu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-08-10 2022-08-10 26 35