Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences https://journalajravs.com/index.php/AJRAVS <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/AJRAVS/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all aspects of Animal and Veterinary sciences. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences en-US Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences Feed Wastage Management in Rabbit Production using Different Feeders https://journalajravs.com/index.php/AJRAVS/article/view/30168 <p><strong>Aims:</strong> This study was carried out to reduce the wastage caused by pawing effects of rabbits by introducing different feeder types.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> Completely Randomized Design&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The study was carried out at Hephzibah and Beulah Farms, Ibadan, Nigeria between September 2018 and October 2018 (4 weeks).</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> 36 rabbits in 1:2 ratio of growers to weaners respectively, were allocated to 3 different feeder types: Open Mouth Feeder (OMF), Tin Feeders (TF) and Hollow Mouth Feeders (HMF) in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The rabbits were fed a formulated diet in ration of 120g/day for the first 3 weeks of the experiment and 150g/day for the last week of the experiment, while water was supplied ad-libitum throughout the experiment.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In the weaner rabbits, the results showed that although there was no significant difference (p&gt;0.05) in the Weight Gain and FCR across the 3 treatments throughout the experiment, Feed Intake and Feed wastage, varied statistically in the first week and numerically in subsequent weeks, the intake and wastage were highest and lowest respectively for rabbits fed with OMF type. For the grower rabbits: feed intake was significantly higher (p&lt;0.05) with rabbits fed with the TF types across the last 3 weeks of the experiment, concurrently, feed wastage was significantly lower (<em>P&lt;0.05</em>) with rabbits fed with the TF types across the last 3 weeks of the experiment. Weight gain and FCR on the other hand were not significantly different (p<em>&gt;0.05</em>) across the 3 treatments for the four weeks of the experiment.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It was concluded that HMF encourage feed wastage in rabbit production, and as a replacement, OMF should be encouraged for weaner rabbits while TF is ideal for the grower rabbits.</p> O. O. Musa N. F. Anurudu A. A. Badejoko ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-08-09 2021-08-09 31 38 Relationship among Liveweight and Body Dimensions of the Greater Cane Rat (Thrynomys swinderianus) https://journalajravs.com/index.php/AJRAVS/article/view/30164 <p>The objective of this study was to predict the live weight (LW) of domestically kept Grasscutters from some morphological parameters.&nbsp; The study was carried out at the Grasscutter section of FAK Farms, Apata, Ibadan. Data were recorded on body length (BL), tail length (TL), heart girth (HG), wither height and head length (HL) and body weights of 45 animals (25 females and 20 males) selected at random. Body weights and linear body measurements were recorded for the animals at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age using the simple kitchen digital weighing balance and traditional tape measure respectively and the data obtained were subjected to descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation and regression analysis (P=0.05). Mean body length, tail and head lengths, heart girth and wither height were 51.38±3.03cm, 16.76±1.05cm, 10.01±0.42cm, 28.90±1.39cm and 13.66±0.75cm respectively for the male Grasscutters and 45.92±10.01cm, 14.62±0.84cm, 9.40±0.42cm, 28.06±1.41cm and 13.83±0.78cm respectively for the female Grasscutters. The correlation coefficients between LW and body measurements ranged from 0.251 to 0.909 for the male grasscutters and 0.347 to 0.945 for the female grasscutters with the highest correlation of 0.909 and 0.945 for the association between liveweight (LWT) and HG for males at 12 months of age and females at 9 months indicating sexual dimorphism.</p> <p>The coefficients of determination (R<sup>2</sup>) for the prediction equations recorded highest for heart girth {LWT= -0.101+0.095HG (82.6%)} at 12 months and {LWT= -2.671+0.148HG (89.4%)} at 9 months for the male and female Grasscutters respectively. Using the linear function from the R<sup>2</sup> value, BL, WH and HG were better predictors of LW than TL and HL. The best predictor of body weight was heart girth for both the male and the female.</p> <p>In conclusion, the use of BL, WH and HG in a given function explained better the variation in LW than the use of just one body measurement and can provide a basis for selection.</p> A. K. Durowaye A. E. Salako O. H. Osaiyuwu O. E. Fijabi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-02 2021-07-02 1 9 Assessment of Dairy Cows for Milk Yield in the Cool Tropical Climate of Plateau State, Nigeria https://journalajravs.com/index.php/AJRAVS/article/view/30165 <p>Genetic improvements of milk yield in the tropics necessitate the use of exotic cattle to the upgrade the performance of local cattle<strong>. </strong>The data for the study came from two different genotypes namely Holstein Friesian and FriesianxBunaji crossbred on the Plateau State in Nigeria. Milk production traits measured were 305-day fat corrected milk yield, daily milk yield, 100-day fat corrected milk yield, total fat yield, total protein yield and lactation length. Six milk production indices (Fat corrected milk yield kilogram weight; FCM Kg W, fat corrected milk yield kilogram metabolic weight; FCM Kg MW, fat corrected milk yield per day per kilogram weight; FCM/day/kgW, fat corrected milk yield per day per kilogram metabolic weight; FCM/day/kgMW, net energy efficiency and dairy merit). The R 3.0.3 statistical software was used for basic descriptive, t-test and regression analysis. Milk production traits were significantly (P&lt;0.05) influenced by genotype. Neural network models had the best prediction accuracy for estimating milk yield. It is concluded that considerable genetic variation existed between genotypes in milk production and efficiency traits.</p> D. O. Omoniwa R. O. Okeke O. O. Adeniyi J. M. Madu D. S. Bunjah Umar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-03 2021-07-03 10 15 Prevalence and Pathology of Caprine Coccidiosis in South Darfur State, Sudan https://journalajravs.com/index.php/AJRAVS/article/view/30166 <p>This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence and pathology of coccidiosis in local breeds of goats in South Darfur State and the factors affecting it. One hundred faecal samples were directly collected from the rectum during September – December 2017, from goats, kept in an open system. The animals were grouped according to sex (34 males and 66 females), and according to age group (85 goats in the age one year or more, 15 less than one year). Oocysts were detected using the floatation method; the McMaster method was used for oocysts count. Length, width and size were measured by calibrated microscope attached to computer for the parasite identification. On the other hand, 100 samples of intestine sections were collected for gross and microscopic examination, from Nyala North slaughterhouse. The gross intestinal lesions were reported and sections for histopathology were made according to standard method. The overall prevalence of coccidiosis in goats was 65% in South Darfur State. Eimeria species identified were: <em>E. alijevi</em> (15.7%), <em>E. hirci</em> (26.3%), <em>E. ninakohlyakimovae</em> (36.8%), and <em>E. caprovina</em> (21%). The infection was higher in goat kids compared to adults. The gross lesions were characterized by scattered white nodules in the intestinal wall particularly in the jejunum and ileum as well as hemorrhages. Microscopically there were hemorrhages in the mucosa; hyperplasia of the mucosal epithelium with infiltration of inflammatory cells mainly lymphocytes, plasma cells, and eosinophils in the lamina propria, and presence of different developmental stages of the parasite in the intestinal epithelium and mucosal glands. Coccidiosis in goats resulting from complex interactions between parasites and host with many factors contributing to the severity of the disease, kids are more susceptible to infection with the clinical coccidiosis.</p> Mohammed Ahmed Abdalla Khairelsiad Amir Mustafa Saad Yassin Abdulrahim A. Abdelnasir El Tigani Ahamed El Tigani Mohammed Hamid ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-20 2021-07-20 16 22 Haematological Indices of Growing Rabbits Fed Herbaceous Plants as Sole Diet https://journalajravs.com/index.php/AJRAVS/article/view/30167 <p>Competition between humans and animals for food is inevitable since some feed stuffs used as animal feed are also consumed by humans. Therefore, suitable alternatives for animal feed are compelling. This study was conducted with 32 mixed bred (New Zealand white and Chinchilla) growing rabbits (16 bucks and 16 does of 7 to 8 weeks old and of average weight 1.03kg) for a period of seven (7) weeks to assess haematological indices of rabbits fed herbaceous plants as sole diet. The rabbits were completely randomized into <em>Corchorus olitorius </em>(T1)<em>, Moringa oleifera </em>(T2) and<em> Telfairia occidentalis </em>(T3) and commercial feed as the control diet (T0), with each treatment having eight rabbits, in four replicates of two rabbits per replicate. Blood samples were collected pre and post exposure to the treatment. Haematological parameters assayed were packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was carried out for the assessment of the variations in these parameters. The values obtained (Mean ± SD) for each blood parameter pre-exposure to the treatment were within the normal physiological range of healthy rabbit, except the value of the Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) which was lower than the normal physiological range. Blood indices assayed for, post exposure to treatment showed significant difference (P &lt; 0.05) in the Mean corpuscular hemoglobin. Based on the data from the haematological parameters. It was concluded that Corchorus olitorius could solely sustain rabbits with no adverse effect on their well being.</p> S. S. Aderibigbe D. O. Adejumo O. E. Fijabi T. G. Johnson ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-30 2021-07-30 23 30 Impact of COVID-19 on Butchers and Meat Processors in Ghana: Implication on Food (Meat) Biosecurity https://journalajravs.com/index.php/AJRAVS/article/view/30169 <p><strong>Aims:</strong> COVID-19 had an impact on the food (meat) biosecurity of Ghana. Butchers and meat processors ensure food biosecurity by making meat available, accessible, stable, and affordable to Ghanaians. This study assessed the impact of COVID-19 on butchers and meat processors in the Tamale metropolis, Ghana.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> A semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain data from 98 randomly selected butchers and 4 local meat processors on the impact of COVID-19 on their operations.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> COVID-19 had a very negative impact on both butchers and meat processors. Low sales were a prominent impact experienced by both butchers and meat processors. Lack of animals to buy was the most important effect of COVID-19 on their business and threatens the food biosecurity of Ghanaians in terms of protein intake from animal sources. All the meat processors, but only 51% of the butchers were prepared for COVID-19. The butchers (90.8%) expected the government to make farming resources available during the COVID-19 period, while meat processors (50.0%) expected the transport to be provided. To ensure the survival of the meat industry to promote food biosecurity after COVID-19, butchers (59.2%) proposed the provision of financial support for their business whilst the meat processors (50.0%) proposed that animals should be thoroughly checked at the borders.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The findings of the study revealed that COVID-19 negatively affected the meat industry of Ghana and was a potential threat to the country’s food (meat) biosecurity.</p> Frederick Adzitey Stephen K.K. Monten Evans Boateng Frimpong ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-08-30 2021-08-30 39 54 Performance of Broilers Birds Administered Graded Levels Oxytetracycline in Sokoto, Nigeria https://journalajravs.com/index.php/AJRAVS/article/view/30170 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The study investigated the effect of oxytetracycline on broiler birds.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> The study was conducted using a total of 288 broiler birds in a Completely Randomized Design with four treatments T<sub>1 </sub>(20 mg/kg), T<sub>2</sub> (40 mg/kg), T<sub>3</sub> (60 mg/kg) and T<sub>4</sub> (control).</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> (to be furnished)</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> to be furnished</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The result shows no significant difference (P&gt;0.05) among T4 (control), T2 and T3 in all parameters measured except between T4 and T2 in final body weight. Where birds in T4 have significantly higher values than those in T2. At finisher stage, birds fed 20mg/kg OTC (T1) recorded lower feed intake, body weight and average body weight gain per bird compared to birds in T2, T3 and T4. There is no significant difference (P&lt;0.05) between T2, T3 and T4 in terms of final&nbsp; body weight gain per bird. Total feed intake is higher in control (T4) compared to T3, T2 and T1)</p> S. Abubakar A. U. Abdullahi M. L. Usman G. Sani H. B. Usman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-09-02 2021-09-02 55 61 Effects of Age on the Physical Semen Characteristics of Arbor Acres Broilers under Sudan Conditions https://journalajravs.com/index.php/AJRAVS/article/view/30171 <p><strong>Background and objectives</strong><strong>:</strong> The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of age on semen characteristics of arbor acres cocks reared in Sudan.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong><strong>:</strong> One day old ten male broiler chicks were randomly selected and reared in cages. Temperature was adjusted at 25C<sup>ᵒ</sup> and photostimulation program of arbor acres breeder was applied. They were fed pre-starter ration in the first week, starter ration in 2-5 weeks , growing ration in 6-18 weeks, pre-production ration 19-23 weeks and production ration 24- 42 weeks of age . Semen samples were weekly collected from the 22<sup>nd </sup>week up to 42<sup>th</sup> .Semen samples were evaluated for color, volume (SV), sperm mass motility (MM), percent of individual motility percent (IMP), live sperm (LSP), concentration (SC) and abnormal sperm percent (ASP).</p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>:</strong> Out of the 230 samples obtained ,197 (85.65%) were creamy and 27 (11.74%) were white milky in consistency, the other 6 (2.61%) samples were turbid and watery. The mean values obtained for SV (0.29±0.02 ml), MM (2.25±0.63) in the 26<sup>th</sup> week of age were significantly higher compared to the initial collection values (0.24±0.12/ml), (1.75±0.54 ) respectively where they tended to decrease gradually with advanced age . However, at the 30<sup>th</sup> weeks of age the values obtained for IMP (81.62±9.36), LSP (87.70±4.15) and SC (3.21±1.62) were higher, compared to the initial values and decreased with advanced age thereafter. The values obtained for ASP in the 22<sup>nd</sup> week of age were significantly higher (9.63±4.26) compared to the following values up to the end of the experiment where a general pattern of reduction was observed.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong><strong>:</strong> It is concluded that semen characteristics of Arbor Acres cocks reared in Sudan are within the normal range and are adversely affected by advanced age.</p> Abu Baker E. I. Hassan Babiker A. Elsharif Suhair S. Mohammed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-09-06 2021-09-06 62 73 Histogenesis of the Camel(Camelus dromedarius) Foetal Ovary with Special Emphasis to the Follicular Development and its Histometric Characteristics https://journalajravs.com/index.php/AJRAVS/article/view/30172 <p>The aims of the present study are to investigate the histology of the different components of the foetal camel ovary, with special emphasis to the ovarian follicles and to determinate some histometric characteristics of the ovary during prenatal life. The present study was conducted in 79 foeti at different ages of development. The specimens were classified into first trimester (19 foeti), second trimester (26 foeti) and third trimester (34 foeti) according to the equation .The curved crown vertebral rump length (CVRL) equation Y= 0.366X-23.99 which was described by ELWishy <strong><em>et al.,</em></strong> (1981) was used for the determination of the foetal age (X) in days from the known (Y) curved crown rump length in centimeters. Then the standard histological techniques were used to prepare the histological slides.&nbsp; The primordial germ cells migrated through the mesentery and were found between the cells of the surface epithelium. The first primordial follicles appeared at (25 cm CVRL)&nbsp;&nbsp; about (134 days old foetus) while at (28 cm CVRL) about (142 days old foetus) the first primary follicle was observed and at (65 cm CVRL) about (243 days old foetus) the first growing follicle was formed. The antral follicles were found only during the third trimester.</p> Hidaia B. Zolain Dafa Alla I. Osman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-09-08 2021-09-08 74 105 Bacterial Quality of Goat Raw Milk in Khartoum State, Sudan https://journalajravs.com/index.php/AJRAVS/article/view/30173 <p>This study was aiming at investigating the bacteriological quality of raw goat’s milk in Khartoum State during 6 months of the year 2019. A total of 60 samples of raw goat’s milk were collected from different localities of Khartoum State as follows: 20 samples from Khartoum Locality, 20 from Bahri Locality and 20 from Omdurman Locality. Samples were subjected for bacteriological Viable Count using Plate Count Agar (PCA) and Coliform Count (CC) methods.For goat's milk samples collected from Khartoum Locality, 11 (55.0%) scored the mean APC of 25X10<sup>5</sup>CFU/ml and 9 (45.0%) scored the mean Aerobic Plate Count(APC) of 15X10<sup>3</sup>CFU/ml. Coliforms were detected in 5 (25.0%) of milk samples with the mean CC of 10X10<sup>3</sup>CFU/ml. Out of 20 goats' milk samples collected from Bahri Locality, 8 (40.0%) scored the mean APC of 20X10<sup>5</sup>CFU/ml and 12 (55.0%) scored the mean APC of 18X10<sup>3</sup>CFU/ml. Coliforms were detected in 6 (30.0%) of milk samples with the mean CC of 10X10<sup>3</sup>CFU/ml. For goat's milk samples collected from Omdurman Locality, 14 (70.0%) scored the mean APC of 21X10<sup>5</sup>CFU/ml and 6 (30.0%) scored the mean APC of 19X10<sup>3</sup>CFU/ml. Coliforms were not detected in milk samples.</p> Salih A. Mohamedsalih El Ayis A. Abubaker ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-09-08 2021-09-08 106 111 Investigation of Bovine Respiratory Disease in Dairy Calves in Bahri Locality, Sudan https://journalajravs.com/index.php/AJRAVS/article/view/30174 <p>Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is considered the major cause of economic losses in dairy and beef cattle production due to its high morbidity and mortality rates. Opportunistic bacteria are factors for the development of BRD. This study was aimed at investigation of BRD in dairy calves in Bahri locality, Sudan. The study was carried out during six months of the years 2019 and 2020. This simplified scoring system which used assessed six clinical signs.&nbsp; When present, a specific number of points were assigned for each sign. A total score of 5 or higher classified an individual as a BRD case. Among 450 dairy calves investigated for presence of BRD, 40 calves (8.9%) were positive for the scoring system. Out of the 40 dairy calves positive for BRD scoring system, 24 (60%) were male calves. Out of 40 dairy calves positive for BRD scoring system, 25 (62.5%) 1 month old, 5 (12.5%) were 1.5 month, 4 (10.0%) were 2 months, 2 (5.0%) were 2.5 months and 4 (10.0%) were 3 months. Out of 40 dairy calves positive for the scoring system in Bahri Locality, 40 (100.0%) appeared nasal discharges, 31 (77.5%) eye discharges, 33 (82.5%) coughing, 25 (62.5%) difficult breathing, 13 (32.5%) fever and 29 (72.5%) Ear drop or head tilt. In this investigation a total of 43 bacterial isolates were obtained from 40 nasal swab samples collected from pneumonic calves in Bahri locality. The identified bacteria according to bacteriological examiations were: 8 <em>S. aureus</em> (18.6%), 3 <em>S. epidermidis</em> (6.9%), 2 <em>S. chromogenes</em> (4.7%), 5 <em>Str. Pneumoniae</em> (11.6%), 2 <em>Str. uberis</em> (4.7%), 3 <em>K. pneumoniae</em> (6.9%), 7 <em>E. coli</em> (16.3%), 6 <em>Ps. aerogenosa</em> (13.9%), 2 <em>B. subtilis </em>(4.7%), 2 <em>M. variens</em> (4.7%) and 3 <em>M. luteus</em> (6.9%). Staphylococci represented the predominant bacteria (30.2%) isolated from nasal swabs compared to other bacteria <em>E. coli</em> (16.3%), Streptococci (16.3%), <em>Ps. aerogenosa</em> (13.9%), Micrococci (11.6%) <em>K. pneumoniae</em> (6.9%) and <em>B. subtilis </em>(4.7%).</p> Eltigany K. G. Amna El Ayis A. Abubaker ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-09-08 2021-09-08 112 120 Genetic Parameters of Growth Traits of Indigenous Guinea Fowls (Numida meleagris galeatea) from Northern Ghana https://journalajravs.com/index.php/AJRAVS/article/view/30176 <p>This study was carried out to estimate some genetic parameters of growth traits of indigenous guinea fowls in northern Ghana. Forty-six-week-old guinea fowls were selected at random from a randomly mating breeding population consisting of birds from Northern, Upper East, Upper West and Volta regions in 2010 and raised at the Livestock and Poultry Research Center of the University of Ghana until 2015. Parameters taken were hatch weight (BW0), weight at 2 weeks (BW2), BW4, BW6, BW 8, BW10, BW12, BW16, BW20, BW24, BW28, BW32, BW36, brooding daily gain (BDG0-4), post brooding daily gain from 4 weeks to 8 weeks (PBDG4-8), PBDG8-12, PBDG12-20, PBDG20-24 and PBDG8-20. Estimation of the heritability of body weight was carried out using the Mixed Model Methodology. The sire model and known genetic relationship in single trait analysis was carried out using the ASREML 3 statistical program. Estimation of heritabilities for the growth rates was done using Becker (1984) procedure. Estimates of genetic and phenotypic correlations were obtained using appropriate expressions involving the estimated variance components according to Becker (1984). Generally, the heritability (h<sup>2</sup>) estimates of body weight for all guinea fowls in this study were low (0.06 for BW36) to moderate (0.51 for BW32). Estimates of heritability for growth rates were medium (0.39 for PBDG4-8) to high (0.78 for PBDG8-12) except P8-20 which had a low heritability value (0.22). With respect to phenotypic correlations, the least coefficient of -0.007 was between BW0 and BW10 whereas the highest of 0.979 was between BW24 and BW28. The heritability estimates of body weight and growth rates were low to high i.e., 0.08-0.70 and 0.22-0.78, respectively. Body weight at two weeks of age served as an indicator for the early selection of guinea fowls based on body weight. It is recommended that the results obtained could be included in the breeding objectives of any upcoming guinea fowl improvement program.</p> A. A. Agbolosu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-09-08 2021-09-08 121 130 Prevalence of Internal Parasites Associated with Dairy Cattle in Nyala City, South Darfur State, Sudan https://journalajravs.com/index.php/AJRAVS/article/view/30175 <p>Helminthosis are one of the worlds most prevalent and economically essential parasitizes of human and domesticated animals. This study was conducted at Nyals city in South Darfur State during the years 2019-2020. The study was aiming at investigating gastrointestinal parasites in cross-breed dairy cattle reared in Nyala city. A questionnaire survey was done before collection of samples. A total of 110 faecal samples were collected from dairy cattle in Nyala city. Faecal samples were subjected for parasitological examination using Floatation and Sedimentation techniques. Faecal slides were examined under low power microscopy. Helminth eggs were detected in 65 (59.1%) faecal samples. 45 percent of the parasitic infestation cases were mixed cases (e.g. mixed Nematodes, and Trematodes and Coccidia spp.). Nematodes eggs were found in 24 (21.8%) samples, Trematodes eggs in&nbsp; 21(19.1%) samples and Coccidia spp. in 20 (18.2%) samples. 10 <em>Paramphistomum</em> spp. were detected and the prevalence of <em>Paramphistomum</em> spp. was 9.1%. 6 <em>Schistoma</em> <em>heamtobium</em> were detected and the prevalence of <em>Schistoma</em> <em>heamtobium</em> was 5.4%. 5 <em>Fasciola</em> <em>gigantica</em> were detected and the prevalence of <em>Fasciola</em> <em>gigantica</em> was 4.5%.</p> Abdu Rahman Yahya Abobaker El Ayis A. Abubaker ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-09-08 2021-09-08 131 138 Study on Physiological, Biochemical and Pathological Evolutions of Donkeys Affect by Gastrointestinal Trac Disturbances https://journalajravs.com/index.php/AJRAVS/article/view/30177 <p><strong>Aim: </strong>This study was for investigating causes, some clinical, pathological, physiological and biochemical parameters of donkeys affected by Gastrointestinal Tract Disturbances (GIT).</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>Twenty donkeys were included in this study 12 GIT infected donkeys were isolated from all diseased donkeys that come to the Educational veterinary hospital of Nyala South Darfur State- Sudan according to the clinical signs of GIT-disturbance and 8 donkeys clinically normal as control group.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>This study was conducted in Educational veterinary hospital of Nyala South Darfur State- Sudan, during the period from December 2019 to April 2021, Samples were collected from ill donkeys that come to the hospital. Those Samples were analyzed in University of Nyala, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Department of Physiology and Biochemistry.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Case history, causes and clinical examination were taken to all donkeys under this study. Respiration rate, pulse rate, rectal temperature, and some biochemical values (total protein, albumin, globulin, creatinine, urea, triglyceride, phosphate, AST and LDH) were measured.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>:</strong> Porridge, Leaves of beans, Water Mellon, Grain over feeding were found the main causes of GIT disturbance in donkeys, causes of some GIT disturbance of donkeys were unknown, respiration rate, pulse rate and rectal temperature were elevated, behavior of donkey infected by GIT disturbance changes were rolling, no desire to walk, petechial haemorrhage of eye mucus membrane, bilateral abdominal distension, all measured biochemical value were highly increased.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>:</strong> Most causes of GIT disturbance in donkeys were found somehow related to the food administration, behavioral changes, elevation of some physiological and biochemical parameters were registered in donkeys under this study.</p> A. I. A. Bahar Siham E. Suliman H. I. Seri Tamour Elkhier Mohammed Hamid ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-13 2021-10-13 139 144 Study on Physiological, Biochemical and Pathological Evolutions of Donkeys Affect by Gastrointestinal Trac Disturbances https://journalajravs.com/index.php/AJRAVS/article/view/30178 <p><strong>Aim: </strong>This study was for investigating causes, some clinical, pathological, physiological and biochemical parameters of donkeys affected by Gastrointestinal Tract Disturbances (GIT).</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>Twenty donkeys were included in this study 12 GIT infected donkeys were isolated from all diseased donkeys that come to the Educational veterinary hospital of Nyala South Darfur State- Sudan according to the clinical signs of GIT-disturbance and 8 donkeys clinically normal as control group.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>This study was conducted in Educational veterinary hospital of Nyala South Darfur State- Sudan, during the period from December 2019 to April 2021, Samples were collected from ill donkeys that come to the hospital. Those Samples were analyzed in University of Nyala, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Department of Physiology and Biochemistry.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Case history, causes and clinical examination were taken to all donkeys under this study. Respiration rate, pulse rate, rectal temperature, and some biochemical values (total protein, albumin, globulin, creatinine, urea, triglyceride, phosphate, AST and LDH) were measured.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>:</strong> Porridge, Leaves of beans, Water Mellon, Grain over feeding were found the main causes of GIT disturbance in donkeys, causes of some GIT disturbance of donkeys were unknown, respiration rate, pulse rate and rectal temperature were elevated, behavior of donkey infected by GIT disturbance changes were rolling, no desire to walk, petechial haemorrhage of eye mucus membrane, bilateral abdominal distension, all measured biochemical value were highly increased.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>:</strong> Most causes of GIT disturbance in donkeys were found somehow related to the food administration, behavioral changes, elevation of some physiological and biochemical parameters were registered in donkeys under this study.</p> A. I. A. Bahar Siham E. Suliman H. I. Seri Tamour Elkhier Mohammed Hamid ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-13 2021-10-13 139 144