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Climate change is argued to have a major impact on livestock production systems as it does not only affect livestock productivity but it also affects the incidence and distribution of livestock diseases. With the changing climate, pastoral production systems are likely to experience even a higher impact on their sources of livelihoods. The objective of the study was to analyse climate trends and livestock disease occurrence in Kajiado County. The study used a cross-sectional design with primary data being collected through focus group discussions (FGD), key informant interviews (KIIs), and expert opinion interviews (EOIs), while secondary data was collected from the Kenya Meteorological Services and County Veterinary Services. A total of 10 FGDs, 25 KIIs, and 12 EOIs were conducted in selected areas within the five sub-counties of Kajiado. Quantitative data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics while qualitative data was analyzed through Kruskall Wallis non-parametric method and content analysis. The findings show that there was an increase in variability in rainfall amounts and temperature between 1970 and 2015. For rainfall, the coefficient of variation rose from 21.6% (1970 to 1993) to 32.02% (1994 to 2015) while for temperature, the increment was from 2.6% (1970 to 1993) to 4.04% (1994 to 2015). There was no significant change in the average annual temperature and rainfall amounts between 1970 and 2015 (P > 0.05). Among livestock diseases, trypanosomiasis and helminthiasis reportedly had higher occurrences according to records obtained from the Veterinary department but according to pastoralists, East coast fever, Foot and mouth disease, anthrax, black quarter, pestes des petits ruminants and contagious caprine pleuropneumonia were the diseases that were significantly affecting the livestock (Z >1.96). In conclusion, the study showed that there was evidence of climate variability with livestock diseases impacting significantly on livestock production which is a major source of livelihoods for pastoralists.
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