Main Article Content
This study was conducted (August to October, 2018) to investigate the effect of varying levels of Mucuna pruriens seed meal diet on reproductive performance and blood profile of rabbit bucks. A total of 30 rabbit bucks weighing 1083 g to 1100 g were randomly allocated to five experimental diets replicated into six containing 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% of Mucuna pruriens seed meal diet in a 2 month (8 week) trial. The phytochemical screening results shows no cardiac glycosides and alkaloids, in Mucuna pruriens seed screened, but a weak presence of resins, saponins, glycosides, steroids and terpens and antitraques, and moderate presence of flavonoids and tannins in Mucuna pruriens seed. The results revealed that the inclusion of Mucuna pruriens seed meal in the diet of rabbit bucks had significant (P < 0.05) effect on average daily feed intake with the highest value occurring at 0% (T1) MSM level of inclusion and lowest at 10% (T3), average final weight and average weight gain with the highest values at 20% (5) MSM level of inclusion and lowest at 0% (T1) for AFW and AWG respectively. The feed conversion ratio was significantly (P < 0.05) different between the treatment groups, and the values were generally similar in numerical comparison to those in the control group. A significant (P < 0.05) difference occurred in the relative weight of vital internal organs of the rabbit bucks between the treatment groups with respect to liver with highest relative weight at 0% (T1) and lowest value in 15% (T3) MSM level of inclusion, and the relative weight of the organs were generally similar in numerical comparison to those in the control group. The inclusion of Mucuna pruriens seed meal in the diets of the rabbit bucks also had no significant effect (P > 0.05) on relative weights of the reproductive organs except the paired testes weight which was significantly (P < 0.05) influenced by the effect of the MSM diet meanwhile testis volume, length and width did not show a significant (P > 0.05) difference between the groups but the mean epididymal (left) length significantly (P < 0.05) affected by the influenced of the MSM diet. The haematological parameters evaluated showed no significant (P > 0.05) difference on PCV, RBC, MCV, MCH, WBC and LDC (leukocytes differential count (N.L.M.E.B)). There were significant (P < 0.05) difference among treatments in Hb and MCHC. Rabbits fed 0 and 20% for Hb and 15% for MCHC MSM diets had significantly (P < 0.05) higher value than those of rabbits fed 20% MSM diet. The effect of MSM diet did not influenced (P > 0.05) the rabbits on total protein, albumin and glucose levels, and their values were comparable to those in the control, thus MSM diet influenced (P < 0.05) rabbit bucks on globulin, urea, creatinine, cholesterol, AST, ALT and ALP among the treatment groups. Significant (P < 0.05) differences in the mean value of testis density were observed in the left and paired testis density between the treatment groups and this could be attributed to increase sperm production. The MSM had positive effect on the physiological status (RR and HR) of the rabbit bucks and improved significantly (P < 0.05) most of the growth and reproductive traits studied. The lowest (17.44°C) Temperature humidity index during the study was observed in August (first week of experiment) and the highest (21.16°C) Temperature humidity index also was observed in August (third week of experiment), 2018. The study revealed that the rabbit bucks did not experience heat stress throughout the experimental period since the weekly THI means observed (17.44 to 21.16°C) were below (27.8°C) heat stress condition. The histological parameters showed normal structure of the seminiferous tubules and germ cells in their various stages of maturation arranged in a layered order. However, the seminiferous tubules were better organized with complete spermatogenesis, and more clearly defined in groups 2 (5%), 3 (10%) and 4 (15%) respectively and their epithelia were structurally intact and show normal germ cells compared to those in group 1 (control) and 5 (20%). It is concluded that the inclusion of Mucuna pruriens seed meal diet up to 20% in rabbit bucks diet would guarantee a good health and growth performance without any deleterious effect on germ cell differentiation, reproductive organ weights and physiological responses. From the findings, it appears Mucuna pruriens seed meal diet is a potential enhancer of male reproductive performance that can be recommended to rabbit farmers for improving reproductive performance, hence a boon to reproduction and production in rabbit farming industry.
Van der lende. Physiological aspects of reproduction and fertility in dairy cows. Wageningen Institute of Animal Sciences 6700 AH Wageningen, the Netherlands; 2016.
Osinowo OA. Introduction to animal Reproduction, Second edition; 2014.
[ISBN978 – 978 – 52473 – 0 – 5]
Ngoula F, Nouboudem SC, Kenfack A, Tadondjou CD, Kana JR, Kouam JM, Tsafack B, Ngoumsop VH, Nguemdjo M, Akassa H, Ousmane IA, Kamtchouing P, Galeotti M, Tchoumboue J. Effect of guava (Psiduim guajava) leaves essential oil on some reproductive parameters in male guinea pig (Cavia porcellus). Biological Systems. 2014;3(1):1–4.
Farouk B, Abdelkarim B, Malika BS, Badreddine AK, Djallel EH, Nasreddine T. Ameliorative effects of Syzygium aromaticum essential oil on fertility in male rats exposed to manganese. Advances in Sexual Medicine. 2013;3(4):85–91.
Bhatia DK, Sharma AK, Pathania PC, Khanduri NC. Anti-fertility effects of crude different of Adiantum lunulatum Burm on reproductive organs of male albino rats. Biological Forum. An International Journal. 2010;2(2):88–93.
Oyeyemi MO, Okediran BS. Testicular parameters and sperm morphology of chinchilla rabbits fed with different planes of soy meal. International Journal of Morphology. 2007;25(1):139–144.
Ajao BH, Ola SI, Adameji OV, Kolawole RF. The relationship of ambient temperature and relative humidity of thermo respiratory function of greater grass cutter. Proc. of the 18th Annual Conf. of Anim. Sci. Assoc. of Nig. 2013;92.
Ezeagu IE, Maziya-Dixon B, Tarawali G. Seed characteristics and nutrient and antinutrient composition of 12 Mucuna accessions from Nigeria. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2003;1:129–139.
Cook BG, Pengelly BC, Brown SD, Donnelly JL, Eagles DA, Franco MA, Hanson J, Mullen BF, Partridge IJ, Peters M, Schultze-Kraft R. Tropical forages. CSIRO, DPI AND F(Qld), CIAT and ILRI, Brisbane, Australia; 2005.
Chakoma I, Manyawu G, Gwiriri L, Moyo S, Dube S. The agronomy and use of Mucuna pruriens in smallholder farming systems in southern Africa. ILRI extension brief. Nairobi, Kenya: ILRI; 2016.
[Accessed 15 Sept 2018]
Douthwaite B, Manyong VM, Keatinge JDH, Chianu J. The adoption of alley farming and Mucuna: Lessons for research, development and extension. Agroforestry Systems. 2002;56:193-202.
Alo MN, Okeh OC, Anyim C, Orji JO. The effects of ethanol extract of Mucuna pruriens leaves on aspartate aminotrans-ferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase in albino rats. Journal of Natural Production Plant Resource. 2012;2(4):465–470.
Suresh S, Prithiviraj E, Prakash S. Effect of Mucuna pruriens on oxidative stress mediated damage in aged rat sperm. International Journal of Andrology. 2009;33:22–32.
Daramola JO, Abiona JA, Olusiji FS, Olubukola AI, Sowande OS, Olaniyi MO, Olanite JA. Effect of Mucuna (Mucuna pruriens) on spermiograms of West African dwarf bucks. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2015;18:145–150.
Suresh S, Prithiviraj E, Prakash S. Dose and time dependent effects of ethanolic extract of Mucuna pruriens Linn. Seed on sexual behavior of normal male rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2009; 122(3):497–501.
Ahmad MK, Mahdi AA, Shukla KK, Islam N, Jaiswar SP, Ahmad S. Effect of Mucuna pruriens on semen profile and biochemical parameters in seminal plasma of infertile men. Fertility and Sterility. 2008;90(3):9.
Misra L, Mishra HO, Wagner H. Biologically active principles from Mucuna pruriens seeds, IUPAC International Conference on Biodiversity and Natural Products: Chemistry and Medicinal Applications, 26–31 Jan., Delhi University, New Delhi, India; 2004.
Adebowale YA, Adeyemi IA, Oshodi AA. Functional and physicochemical properties of flours of six Mucuna species. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2005;4(12):1461–1468.
Mutwedu VB, Ayagirwe RBB, Metre KT, Mugumaarhahama Y, Sadiki JM, Bisimwa EB. Rabbit production systems under smallholder conditions in South Kivu, Eastern DRC. Livestock Research for Rural Development; 2015.
Iwuji TC, Herbert U. Semen characteristics and libido of rabbit bucks fed diets containing Garcinia kola seed meal. Rabbit Genetics. 2012;2(1):10-14.
Mitruka BM, Rawnsley HM. Clinical biochemical and hematological reference values in normal experimental animals. Masson Publ. Co., New York, USA. 1977;65.
Ojebiyi OO, Shittu MD, Oladunjoye IO, Omotola OB, Olaniyi SA. Haematology, carcass and relative organ weights of growing rabbits on skip-a-day concentrate feeding regime. IJAAAR. 2013;9(1-2):167-174.
Shah MK, Khan A, Rizvi F, Siddique M, Sadeeq-ur-Rahman. Effect of Cypermethrin on clinocohaematological parameters in rabbits. Pakistan Veterinary Journal. 2007;27:171-175.
Njidda AA, Isidahomen CE. Haematology, blood chemistry and carcass characteristics of growing rabbits fed grasshopper meal as a substitute for fish meal. Pakistan Veterinary Journal. 2010;30(1):7-12.
Amata IA. The effect of feeding Gliricidia leaf meal (GLM) on the haematological, serological and carcass characteristics of weaned rabbits in the tropics. Agr. Biol. J. N. Am. 2010;1(5):1057-1050.
Marco I, Cuenca R, Pastor J, Velarde R, Lavin S. Haematology and serum chemistry values of the European Brown Hare. Journal of Veterinary Clinical Pathology. 2003;32(4):195-198.
Omoikhoje SO, Bamgbose AM, Aruna MB, Anishashahu RA. Response of weaner rabbits to concentrate supplemented with varying levels of Syndrella nodiflora forage. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2006;5(6):577-579.
RAR. Reference values for laboratory animals: Normal haematological values. Res. Anim. Resour. Univ., Minnesota; 2007.
Ross JG, Christie G, Haliday WH, Jones RM. Haematological and blood chemistry comparison values. Clinical pathology in poultry. Veterinary Record. 1978;102(2):23–32.
Anon. Guide to the care and use of experimental animals. Canadian Council on Animal Care. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. 1980;1:85–90.
Swenson MJ. Duke’s physiology of domestic animal, constock publishing associates a division of Cornell University Press. Thecae, London, Eleventh Edition, 1999;22–48.
Tuleun CD, Adenkola AY, Oluremi OIA. Performance characteristics and haematological variables of broiler feed diet containing Mucuna (Mucuna utilis) Seed Meal. Tropical Veterinary. 2007;25:74-81.
Sese BT, Okpeku MI. Impact of tropical velvet bean (Mucuna utilis) leaf meal on performance, organ weight and haematological indices of young rabbits. Journal of Animal Science Advances. 2014;44(9):2636–2641.
Ujowundu CO. Evaluation of the chemical composition of Mucuna utilis leaves used in herbal medicine in South – Eastern Nigeria. African Journal of Pharmaceutical Pharmacology. 2010;4(11):811–816.
Champe PC, Harvery RA, Ferrier DR. Amino acids: Disposal of Nitrogen in: Biochemistry 4 Edition. Wolters Kluwar (India) Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. 2008;245–260.
Frandson RD. Anatomy and physiology of farm animals. 4th Edition, Lea and Febiger Publishers. 600 Washinton square, Philadelpia P.A. 19106 – 41980 USA (215). 1986;92–1330.
Adeyemo GO, Longe OG. Effect of graded levels of cottonseed cake on the performance, haematological and carcass characteristic of broilers fed from day-old to 8 weeks of age. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2007;6(8):1064-1071.
Steiner Z. Effect of dietary protein/energy combinations on male broiler breeder sperformance, Acta agriculturae Slovenica. 2008;2:107–115.
Muhammad IA. Studies on haematology and serum biochemistry of broiler chickens finished on unprocessed velvet bean (Mucuna utilis (L.)) as dietary protein sources, Biokemistri. 2015;27(2):68–75.
Aderinola OA. Utilization of Moringa oleifera leaf as feed supplement in broiler diet. International Journal of Food, Agriculture and Vetrinary Sciences. 2013;3(3):94–102.
Jiwuba PC. Feed intake, body weight changes and haematology of West Afrian Dwarf goats fed dietary levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal. Agricultura. 2016;13(1–2):71–77.
Jiwuba PC. Blood profile of West Afrian Dwarf goats fed provitamin a cassava peel Centrocema leaf meal based diets. Analele Stiintifice ale Universitatii Alexandru Ioam Cuza Iasi. Sectiunea II A, Genetica Si Biologie Moleculara. 2016;17(13):127– 134.
Adepoju GKA, Odubena OO. Effect of Mucuna pruriens on some haematological and biochemical parameters. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2009;3(2):73–76.
Fung SY, Tan NH, Sim SM, Merinello E, Guerrenti–Aguyi JC. Mucuna pruriens Lin. seed extract pretreatment protects against cardiorespiratory and neuromuscular depressant effects of Naja sputatrix (javan spitting cobra) venom in rats. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 2011;49:254-259.
Lording PM, Friend SCE. Interpretation of laboratory results. Aust. Veterinary Practice. 1991;21:188-192.
Yilkal T. Important anti-nutritional substances and inherent toxicants of feeds. Food Science. Quality Man. 2015;36:40-47.
Oloruntola OD, Ayodele SO, Agbede JO, Oloruntola DA, Ogunsipe MH, Omoniyi IS. Effect of Alchornea cordifolia leaf meal and enzyme supplementation on growth, haematological, immunostimulatory and serum biochemical response of rabbits. Asian Journal Biologica Life Science. 2016a;5:190-195.
Oloruntola OD, Ayodele SO, Agbede JO, Oloruntola DA. Effect of feeding broiler chicken with diets containing Alchornea cordifolia leaf meal and enzyme supplementation. Arch. Zootec. 2016b;65:489-498.
Carew LB, Valverde MT, Zakrzewska EI, Alster FA, Gernat AG. Raw velvet beans (Mucuna pruriens) and L-dopa have differing effects on organ growth and blood chemistry when fed to chickens. 272-287. In: Food and Feed from Mucuna: Current Uses and the Way Forward: Flores, B. M., Eilittä, M., Myhrman, R., Carew, L.B., and Carsky, R.J. (Ed). Proceedings of an International Workshop held in Tegucigalpa, Honduras; 2002.
Carew LB, Hardy D, Weis J, Alster FA, Mischler SA, Gernat AG, Zakrzewska EI. Heating raw velvet beans (Mucuna pruriens) reverse some antinutritional effects on organ growth, blood chemistry, and organ histology in growing chickens. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystem. 2003;1:267–275.
Chukwudi NH, Simeon O, Chiyere AJ. Analysis of some biochemical and haematolgical parameters for Mucuna pruriens (DC) seed powder in male rats. Parkistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2011;24(4):523–526.
Sies H. Oxidative stress: Oxidants and antioxidants. Exp. Physiol. 1997;82:291-295.
Yadav MK, Upadhyay P, Purohit S, Pandey BL, Shah H. Phytochemistry and pharmacological activity of Mucuna pruriens: A review. International Journal of Green Pharmacology. 2017;11:69-73.
Amao EA, Oladipo AO, Sokunbi OA. Testicular characteristics and daily sperm production and sperm reserves in rabbit bucks; 2013.
Ahemen T, Abu AH, Akuba JO. Effect of Gmelina arborea Leaf meal on sperm production of rabbit bucks fed diets containing neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) rind meal. Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2016;3(8):623-627.
Ewuola EO. Daily sperm production, gonadal and extra-gonadal sperm reserves of rabbits fed prebiotic and probiotic supplemented diets; 2013.
Ladipo MK, Adu OA, Oyefeso SD, Oluleye FO, Akinmuyisitan IW. Organ, testicular and epididymal morphometric of male rabbits fed dietary cerium oxide. Journal of Animal Vetetrinary Science. 2015;2(3):17-21.
Ogbuewu IP, Okoli IC, Iloeje MU. Semen quality characteristics, reaction time, testis weight and seminiferous tubule diameter of buck rabbits fed neem (Azadirachta indica A Juss) leaf meal based diets. Iranian Journal of Reproductive Medicine. 2009;7(1):23-28.
Ajayi AF, Raji Y, Togun V. Caudal epididymal sperm characteristics and testicular morphometrics of rabbits fed graded levels of a blood-wild sunflower leaf meal (BWSLM) mixture diet. Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine. 2009;6(1):26.
Ezekwe AG. Gonadal and extragonadal sperm reserve and testicular histometry of post pubertal Muturu bulls. Nigeria Journal of Animal Production. 1998;25:106-110.
Encylopedia Britannica. Density encylopedia britannica premium service; 2004.
Skinner JD. Puberty in male rabbits. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility. 1967;14:151-154.