Modulatory Effect of Ascorbic Acid Administration on Rectal Temperature, Percentage of Excitability and Body Weight Changes of West African Dwarf Goats Transported by Road

Main Article Content

E. O. Agwu
O. Byanet
C. Ezihe
H. A. Abu
A. Y. Adenkola


This study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the modulatory effect of ascorbic acid supplementation on rectal temperature, body weight changes and percentage excitation of West African Dwarf (WAD) goats transported by road for eight hours. A total of twenty eight (28) male West African dwarf goats of eight months to one year old were used for this study. The animals were divided into four groups of seven animals each. Animal in groups A and C were given ascorbic acid at the dosage of 250 mg/kg body weight while groups B and D were only given 10ml of sterile water each. Animals in groups A and B were transported while those in groups C and D were inside the pen on the day of transportation. The rectal temperature obtained at the experimental site before and after transportation in all the groups were not significantly (p>0.05) different. On the day of journey, rectal temperature of animals rise from 38.25±0.19°C to 39.44±0.12 in group B, from 38.58±0.13 to 39.42±0.11°C in group D while it fluctuate between 38.38±0.15 and 38.00±0.15°C in group A eight hour into the journey. At the end of the journey, there was significant (p<0.05) difference between the ascorbic acid supplemented groups and non-ascorbic acid supplemented groups. The average live weight of WAD goats in kg before the transportation were 9.14±0.52, 8.85±0.58, 8.87±0.37 and 8.93±0.59 kg in groups A, B, C and D respectively. Although there was no significant (p>0.05) difference in the live weight of goats in the various groups pre and post transportation but a percentage difference of 3.06, 5.53, 3.38 and 4.45 was obtained in group A, B, C and D respectively. Weight of animals in group A (9.83±0.45 kg) and group C (9.32±o.34 kg) were higher than the weight recorded in group B (9.00±0.95 kg) and D (8.80±0.69 kg) seven days post transportation. The percentages of excitation recorded immediately after transportation in ascorbic acid supplemented groups were significantly (p<0.05) higher than the non-ascorbic acid supplemented groups.

In conclusion, transportation of WAD goats constitute stress which could have adverse effect on rectal temperature, live weight and excitability scores, thus it is recommended that ascorbic acid should be administered to goats prior to transportation to ameliorate the stress.

Road transportation, ascorbic acid administration, WAD goats, rectal temperature, percentage of excitation, live weight changes.

Article Details

How to Cite
Agwu, E., Byanet, O., Ezihe, C., Abu, H., & Adenkola, A. (2019). Modulatory Effect of Ascorbic Acid Administration on Rectal Temperature, Percentage of Excitability and Body Weight Changes of West African Dwarf Goats Transported by Road. Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, 3(3), 1-11. Retrieved from
Original Research Article


Anaeto M, Adeyeye JA, Chioma GO, Olarinmoye AO, Tayo GO. Goat products: Meeting the challenges of human health and nutrition. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America. 2010;6:1231-1236.

Nigeria Meteorological Agency (NMA). Makurdi weather element records. Nigeria Meteorological Agency Makurdi, Nigeria; 2004.

Morand-Fehr P. Strategy for goat farming in the 21st Century. Small Ruminant Research. 2003;51(2):175-183.

Adenkola AY, Adah AS, Ambali SF. The effects of vitamins C and E on erythrocyte osmotic fragility, serum malondialdehyde concentrations and surface erythrocyte sialic acid in rams following road transportation. Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences. 2016;48(2):9-17.

Tajik J, Nazifi S, Eshtraki R. The influence of transportation stress on serum cortisol, thyroid hormones, and some serum bio-chemical parameters in Iranian cashmere (Raini) goat. Veterinary Arhivers. 2016;86: 795-804.

Kadim I, Mahgoub IT, AlKindi O, Al-Marzooqi AY, Al-Saqri W, Almaney NM, Mahmoud IY. Effect of transportation at high ambient temperatures on physiological responses, carcass and meat quality characteristics in two age groups of omani sheep. Asian-Australian Journal of Animal Science. 2007;20(3): 424–431.

Saeb MA, Baghshani H, Nazifi S, Saeb S. Physiological response of dromedary camels to road transportation in relation to circulating levels of cortisol, thyroid hormones and some serum biochemical parameters. Tropical Animal Health and production. 2010;42:55-63.

Adenkola AY, Ayo JO. Physiological and behavioural responses of livestock to road transportation stress: A review. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2010;9(31): 4845-4856.

Kannan G, Terrill TH, Konakou B, Gazal OS, Gelaye S, Amoah EA, Samake S. Transportation of goats: Effects on physiological stress responses and live weight loss. Journal of Animal Science. 2000;78:1450-1457.

Adenkola AY, Okoro LI. Serum malondialdehyde concentration, rectal temperature and excitability score in road transported rams administered with vitamins C + E Combination and Vitamin C. Nigerian Veterinary Journal. 2014;35(2): 995-1006.

Frei B, Forte TM, Ames B, Cross CE. Gas phase oxidants of cigarette smoke induce lipid peroxidation and changes in lipoprotein properties in human blood plasma. Protective effects of ascorbic acid. Journal of Biochemistry. 1991;277:133-138.

Parker AJ, Dobson GP, Fitzpatrick LA. Physiological and metabolic effects of prophylactic treatment with the osmolytes glycerol and betaine on Bos indicus steers during long duration transportation. Journal of Animal Science. 2007;85:2916-2923.

McDowell LR. Vitamins in animal’s nutrition: Vitamin C, folacin. In Mcdowell LR. (Ed.), Comparative aspects to Human nutrition. Academic Press, London, UK. 1989;298-387.

Cummins KA, Brunner CJ. Effect of calf housing on plasma ascorbate and endocrine and immune function. Journal of Dairy Science. 1991;74:1582-1588.

Padilla L, Matsui T, Kamiya Y, Kamiya M, Tanaka M, Yano H. Heat stress decreases plasma vitamin C concentration in lactating cows. Livestock Science. 2006;101:300-304.

Ghanem AM, Jabel LS, Abi SM, Barbour EK, Hamadeh SK. Physiological and chemical responses in water deprived Awassi ewes treated with vitamin C. Journal of Arid Environment. 2007;72:141-149.

Ayo JO, Minka NS, Mamman M. Excit-ability scores of goats administered ascorbic acid and transported during hot-dry conditions. Journal of Veterinary Science. 2006;7:127-131.

Minka NS, Ayo JO. Physiological responses of erythrocytes of Goats to Transportation and the modulatory role of ascorbic acid. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science. 2010;72(7):875-881.

Adenkola AY, Onyeberechi AS. Co-administration of ascorbic acid and alpha-tecopherol ameliorates oxidative stress parameters of rams transported by road for eight hours. The Journal of Free Radicals and Antioxidants. 2015;142:399-406.

Adenkola AY, Kaankuka F, Oyedokun TT. Effect of ascorbic acid on some physio-logical and haematological parameters of West African dwarf sheep during confinement in early rainy season. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology. 2004;14(1-2):8-12.

Adenkola AY, Alilu EI. Modulatory effect of ascorbic acid supplementation of physio-logical and behavioural parameters on West African Dwarf goats confined during the rainy season. Nigerian Veterinary Journal. 2014;33(4):655-665.

Chervyakov DK, Yevdokimov PD, Vishker AS. Drugs in veterinary medicine. Kolos Publishing House, Moscow. 1977;496. (in Russian).

Warris PD. The welfare of animals during transport. Veterinary Annual Report. 1996; 36:73-85.

Zhao Z, Cao J, Meng X, Li Y. Seasonal variation in metabolism and thermore-gulation in the stripped hamster (Cricetulus barabensis). Journal of Thermal Biology. 2010;35(1):52-57•

Ozkan SY, Akbas O, Altan A, Altan V, Ayhan K. The effect of short-term fasting on performance traits and rectal temperature of broilers during the summer season. British Poultry Science. 2003;44: 88-95•

Minka NS, Ayo JO. Physiological responses of food animals to road transportation stress. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2009;9(40):6601- 6613.

Minka NS. Effects of ascorbic acid on some physiological parameters of Red Sokoto goats transported by road during the hot-dry season. M. Sc. Thesis. Department of Physiology and Pharmacology. Ahmadu Bello University Zaria; 2005.

Adenkola AY, Ayo JO, Sackey AKB, Adelaye AB. Ameliorative effect of ascorbic acid on rectal temperature of pigs trans-ported by road for eight hours du ring the hamattan season. Agricultural and Bio-logical Journal of North America. 2011;25: 734 -741.

Ajakaiye JJ. Effects of vitamin C and E on some physiological parameters of Shika brown layer chickens transported by road during the hot-dry season. M.Sc. Thesis. Department of Physiology and Pharmacology. Ahmadu Bello University Zaria; 2006.

Charkraborti A, Gulati K, Ray A. Age-related differences in stress-induced neurobehavioral responses in rats: Modulation by antioxidants and nitrergic agents. Behavioural Brain Research. 2008; 3:186.

Sahin K, Sahin N, Onderei M, Yaraglu S. Kucuk O. Protective role of supplemental vitamin E on lipid peroxidation of broiler reared under heat stress. Veterinary Medicine (Czech). 2001;46:140-144.

Kafri I, Cherry JA. Supplemental ascorbic acid and heat stress in broiler chicks. Poultry Science. 1984;63(Suppl.): 125.

Minka NS, Ayo JO. Effect of antioxidants, vitamin E and C on erythrocyte fragility, haemoglobin index and colonic temperature of transported Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology. 2013;4:149.

Asala OO, Ayo JO, Adenkola AY, Minka NS. Effects of road transportation on excitability scores of pigs administered with ascorbic acid during the hot- dry season. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2011; 9(6):906-911.

Ayo JO, Minka NS, Idoga ES. Ameliorative effects of ascorbic acid on rectal tempera-ture, excitability score and live weight of rabbits transported by road. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2011;10(48): 9978-9984.

Adenkola AY, Anugwa FOI. Effect of ascorbic acid on performance rate of piglets in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. Tropical veterinary Journal. 2007;25(1): 15-17.

Brocardo PS, Assni F, Franco JL, Pandolfo P, Muller YM, Takahashi RN. Zinc attenuates malathion-induced depressant-like behavior and confers neuroprotection in the rat brain. Toxicological Science. 2007;97:140-48.

Balu M, Sangeetha P, Haripiya D, Paneerselvan C. Rejuvenation of anti-oxidants system in central nervous system of aged rats by grape extract. Neuro-science Letters. 2005;383:295-300.

Sohal RS, Agvarwal S, Sohali RH. Oxidative stress and aging in the Mongolian gerbil (Merinos unguiculatus). Mechanism. Ageing Develop. 1995;81:15- 25.