Treatment of Chronic and Severe Diabetes Mellitus with Ketoacidosis in a Four-Year-Old Intact Female American Pit Bull Terrier

Matthew Benedict T. Calibo *

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of the Philippines Los Baños, Laguna 4031, Philippines and Veterinary Teaching Hospital, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City 1101, Philippines.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

A four-year-old intact female American Pit Bull Terrier was brought to the hospital for unresolved weight loss, complete loss of fur, and persistent skin ulcers. Upon presentation, the patient showed severe dehydration, emaciation, and bilateral cataracts despite having reportedly good appetite and responsive behavior. Further examination and work-up diagnosed the patient with diabetic ketoacidosis – a complicated form of diabetes mellitus where insulin deficiency causes increased lipolysis and ketosis, resulting in ketonemia and metabolic acidosis. Multiple glucose curves and adjustments to insulin therapy led to the treatment of DKA and the successful management of diabetes. In the initial 5 months of treatment, the patient showed gradual but consistent improvement in clinical signs and quality of life. This case report shows the consequences and risks of having a severely diabetic canine patient remain undiagnosed and without appropriate insulin therapy. Highlighted through discussion and photos are the reversibility of clinical signs caused by the harmful effects of hyperglycemia, and the successful management of DKA and DM without hospital confinement.

Keywords: Canine, pit bull terrier, emaciation, diabetes mellitus, diabetic ketoacidosis, insulin, hyperglycemia


How to Cite

Calibo, M. B. T. (2024). Treatment of Chronic and Severe Diabetes Mellitus with Ketoacidosis in a Four-Year-Old Intact Female American Pit Bull Terrier. Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, 7(2), 109–121. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajravs/2024/v7i2291

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