Review on Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern of Similar Antibiotics Used for Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. in Bangladesh with Public Health Significance
Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences,
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major health issue for humans and animals around the world. Different classes of antibiotics are frequently used to treat human, poultry, and livestock diseases in Bangladesh. Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. cause gastrointestinal illness in humans and animals. Since they have zoonotic potential, their antibiotic resistance genes may transfer both horizontally and vertically. Human, poultry, and livestock excreta and their environment are excellent sources of pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, E. coli and Salmonella infections in humans and animals are frequently found here, causing huge economic losses. To control these infections, similar categories of antibiotics are aimlessly used here. In this study, different types of antibiotics like ampicillin, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, erythromycin, azithromycin, tetracycline, sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and colistin were found to have higher levels of resistance against E. coli and Salmonella spp. Due to a higher level of resistance, two or three types of antibiotic combinations are used today to check bacterial infections that increase the medicinal burden. It is high time to combat AMR infections by raising public awareness, and the government should implement a national action policy to combat illegal antibiotic use.
- E. coli
How to Cite
Hossain MJ, Attia Y, Ballah FM, Islam MS, Sobur MA, Islam MA et al. Zoonotic significance and antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella in poultry in Bangladesh for the period of 2011–2021. Zoonotic Dis. 2021; 1(1):3-24.
Hossain MJ, Islam MS, Sobur MA, Zaman SB, Nahar A, Rahman M et al. Exploring poultry farm environment for antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Staphylococcus spp. having public health significance. J Bangladesh Agril Univ. 2020;18(3):615–622.
Sobur MA, Sabuj AA, Sarker R, Rahman AT, Kabir SL, Rahman MT. Antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. associated with dairy cattle and farm environment having public health significance. Vet World. 2019;12(7):984.
Bengtsson-Palme J, Kristiansson E, Larsson DJ. Environmental factors influencing the development and spread of antibiotic resistance. FEMS Microb Revi. 2018;42(1):fux053.
Aranda CM, Arias CA, Tejada CE, Forde C, Park B, Rossi F et al. Scientific evidence for the control of antimicrobial resistance. Revista Pana de Salud Pública. 2020;44:e128.
World Health Organization. Strategic and technical advisory group on antimicrobial resistance (STAG-AMR): report of the seventh meeting, 2-3 November 2016, WHO Headquarters, Geneva. World Health Organization; 2017.
Accessed 3 November 2022.
Rosen T. Antibiotic resistance: an editorial review with recommendations. J Drugs Dermatology. 2011;10(7):724-33.
Rahman SMM, Hossain SM, Amin, MR. Antimicrobial Resistance: An Emerging Challenge in Public Health and Beyond. Bangla Medical Res Counc Bull. 2021; 47(2).
Orubu ES, Samad MA, Rahman MT, Zaman MH, Wirtz VJ. Mapping the Antimicrobial Supply Chain in Bangladesh: A Scoping-Review-Based Ecological Assessment Approach. Glob Hea Sci Prac. 2021;9(3):532-47.
Holmes KK, Bertozzi S, Bloom BR, Jha P, Gelband H, DeMaria LM et al. Major infectious diseases: key messages from disease control priorities, Third Edition. Review from The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank, Washington (DC).
Accessed 3 November 2022.
Salmonella (non-typhoidal). WHO. Accessed 3 November 2022.
Infection with Salmonella. CDC.
Accessed 3 November 2022.
Accessed 3 November 2022.
Ahmed I, Rabbi MB, Sultana S. Antibiotic resistance in Bangladesh: A systematic review. International J Infect Dis. 2019;80:54-61.
Al Amin M, Hoque MN, Siddiki AZ, Saha S, Kamal MM. Antimicrobial resistance situation in animal health of Bangladesh. Vet World. 2020;13(12):2713.
Update of AMR Surveillance in Bangladesh (2016-2021). IEDCR.
Accessed 3 November 2022.
Sarker MS, Mannan MS, Ali MY, Bayzid M, Ahad A, Bupasha ZB. Antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from broilers sold at live bird markets in Chattogram, Bangladesh. JAVAR. 2019;6(3):272.
Bashar T, Rahman M, Rabbi FA, Noor R, Rahman MM. Enterotoxin profiling and antibiogram of Escherichia coli isolated from poultry feces in Dhaka district of Bangladesh. Stam J Micro. 2011;1(1):51-7.
AK PM, Marzan M, Liza SM, Mou TJ, Azmi IJ. Prevalence of inhibitor resistant beta lactamase producing E. coli in human and poultry origin of Bangladesh. J Bacteriol Parasitol. 2016;7(271):2.
Runa JA, Lijon MB, Rahman MA. Detection of multidrug resistant and shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) from apparently healthy broilers in Jessore, Bangladesh. Frontiers Environ Microb. 2018;4(1):16-21.
Khatun MN, Mahbub-E-Elahi AT, Ahmed S, Parvej MS, Akhter S, Ansari WK et al. Frequency of drug resistant Escherichia coli isolated from commercial broiler chicken in Bangladesh. Int J Nat Soc Sci. 2015;2:01-5.
Ievy S, Islam MS, Sobur MA, Talukder M, Rahman MB, Khan MF et al. Molecular detection of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) for the first time in layer farms in Bangladesh and their antibiotic resistance patterns. Microorganisms. 2020; 8(7):1021.
Haque MH, Rahman MM, Miah ML, Ahmed S, Sazib MR, Khaton R et al. Exploring antibiotic resistance pattern of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Staphylococcus spp. Isolated from eggs in Rajshahi. European J Agri Food Sci. 2021;3(4):25-30.
Gupta MD, Islam M, Sen A, Sarker MS, Das A. Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Escherichia coli in cattle on Bathan and intensive rearing system. Microb Hea. 2017;6(1):1-4.
Hossain A, Hossain SA, Fatema AN, Wahab A, Alam MM, Islam MN et al. Age and gender-specific antibiotic resistance patterns among Bangladeshi patients with urinary tract infection caused by Escherichia coli. Heliyon. 2020; 6(6):e04161.
Rahman MA, Ahmed MS. Antibiogram of E. coli and Salmonella spp. isolated from chicken meat and frozen milk in Barishal city, Bangladesh. BJVM. 2022; 20(1):AMRT1- AMRT1.
Islam K, Ahad A, Barua M, Islam A, Chakma S, Dorji C et al. Isolation and epidemiology of multidrug resistant Escherichia coli from goats in Cox s Bazar, Bangladesh. JAVAR. 2016;3(2):166-72.
Hassan MM, Amin KB, Ahaduzzaman M, Alam M, Faruk MS, Uddin I. Antimicrobial resistance pattern against E. coli and Salmonella in layer poultry. Res. J. Vet. Pract. 2014;2(2):30-5.
Mamun M, Hassan J, Nazir KH, Islam A, Zesmin K, Rahman B et al. Prevalence and molecular detection of quinolone-resistant E. coli in rectal swab of apparently healthy cattle in Bangladesh. Int J Trop Dis Health. 2017;24(2):1-7.
Mandal AK, Talukder S, Hasan MM, Tasmim ST, Parvin MS, Ali MY et al. Epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli in broiler chickens, farmworkers, and farm sewage in Bangladesh. Vet Med Sci. 2022;8(1):187-99.
Jain P, Bepari AK, Sen PK, Rafe T, Imtiaz R, Hossain M et al. High prevalence of multiple antibiotic resistance in clinical E. coli isolates from Bangladesh and prediction of molecular resistance determinants using WGS of an XDR isolate. Sci Reports. 2021;11(1):1-3.
Hossain MK, Rahman M, Nahar A, Khair A, Alam MM. Isolation and identification of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli causing colibacillosis in calf in selective areas of Bangladesh. BJVM. 2013; 11(2):145-9.
Hossain MT, Siddique MP, Hossain FM, Zinnah MA, Hossain MM, Alam MK et al. Isolation, identification, toxin profile and antibiogram of Escherichia coli isolated from broilers and layers in Mymensingh district of Bangladesh. BJVM. 2008;6(1):1-5.
Rahman MT, Islam MS, Hasan M. Isolation and identification of bacterial agents causing clinical mastitis in Cattle in Mymensingh and their antibiogram Profile. Microb Hea. 2013;2(1):19-21.
Nobel F, Akter S, Jebin RA, Sarker TC, Mizanur M, Rahman SA et al. Prevalence of multidrug resistance patterns of Escherichia coli from suspected urinary tract infection in Mymensingh city, Bangladesh. J Adv Biotechnol Exp Ther. 2021;4:256.
Al Azad MA, Rahman MM, Amin R, Begum MI, Fries R, Husna A et al. Susceptibility and multidrug resistance patterns of Escherichia coli isolated from cloacal swabs of live broiler chickens in Bangladesh. Pathogens. 2019;8(3): 118.
Tawyabur M, Islam MS, Sobur MA, Hossain MJ, Mahmud MM, Paul S et al. Isolation and characterization of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. from healthy and diseased turkeys. Antibiotics. 2020;9(11):770.
Rahman MA, Rahman AK, Islam MA, Alam MM. Antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from milk, beef and chicken meat in Bangladesh. BJVM. 2017;15(2):141-6.
Hashem MA, Elahi MF, Mannan MA, Kabir MHB, Kashem MA, Pallab MS. Isolation, identification and antibiogram of Eschericia coli from broiler at Chittagong district in Bangladesh. Waya J Ani Sci. 2012; 312-316.
Dutta A, Islam MZ, Barua H, Rana EA, Jalal MS, Dhar PK et al. Acquisition of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene mcr-1 in Escherichia coli of livestock origin in Bangladesh. Microbial Drug Resistance. 2020;26(9):1058-62.
Poirel L, Madec JY, Lupo A, Schink AK, Kieffer N, Nordmann P et al. Antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli. Microb Spec. 2018;6(4):6-4.
Akter L, Hassan M, Ahmed Z. Present status and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Salmonella typhi and S. paratyphi in different age group hospitalized patients in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. IOSR J Pharm Biol Sci. 2012;4(3):27-30.
Jahan F, Kabir SL, Amin MM. Identification and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Salmonellae isolated from the broiler dressing plants associated with their environments. Adv Res J Microbio. 2013;1:1–9.
Mahmud T, Hassan MM, Alam M, Khan MM, Bari MS, Islam A. Prevalence and multidrug-resistant pattern of Salmonella from the eggs and egg-storing trays of retail markets of Bangladesh. Int J One Health. 2016;2:7–11.
Abdullah M, Akter MR, Kabir SL, Khan MA, Abdulaziz M. Characterization of bacterial pathogens isolated from calf diarrhoea in Panchagarh district of Bangladesh. J Agri Food Tech. 2013;3(6):8-13.
Hassan MM, Amin KB, Ahaduzzaman M, Alam M, Faruk MS, Uddin I. Antimicrobial resistance pattern against E. coli and Salmonella in layer poultry. Res J Vet Pract. 2014;2(2):30-5.
Talukder M, Islam MS, Ievy S, Sobur MA, Ballah FM, Najibullah M et al. Detection of multidrug resistant Salmonella spp. from healthy and diseased broilers having potential public health significance. J Adv Biotechno Exp Ther. 2021;4(2):248-55.
Sabur MA, Das MR, Uddin MB, Rahman MM, Islam MR, Shahidur M et al. Molecular Detection and Antibiotic Sensitivity of Salmonella Species Isolated from Goat Feces in Sylhet District of Bangladesh. World Vet J. 2021;11(3):395-401.
Akond MA, Shirin M, Alam S, Hassan SM, Rahman MM, Hoq M. Frequency of drug resistant Salmonella spp. isolated from poultry samples in Bangladesh. Stam J Microb. 2012;2(1):15-9.
Chaudhary P, Salam SA, Reza MA, Ahaduzzaman M. High prevalence of ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone resistance Salmonella in the retail chicken market of Chattogram, Bangladesh. Turkish J Vet Res. 2019;3(2):51-5.
Hoque R, Ahmed SM, Naher N, Islam MA, Rousham EK, Islam BZ et al. Tackling antimicrobial resistance in Bangladesh: A scoping review of policy and practice in human, animal and environment sectors. PloS One. 2020;15(1):e0227947.
Siddiky NA, Sarker MS, Khan MS, Begum R, Kabir ME, Karim MR et al. Virulence and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Salmonella enterica serovars isolated from chicken at wet markets in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Microorganisms. 2021;9(5):952.
Pritha ST, Rahman S, Punom SA, Rahman MM, Nazir KN, Islam MS. Isolation, Molecular Detection and Antibiogram of Multi-drug Resistant Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 from Selected Dairy Farms in Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Ameri J Microb Res. 2020;8(4):136-40.
Abedin MZ, Ahmed AA, Hossain MS, Aktar MB. Laboratory based diagnosis of bacteraemia among inpatients and outpatients with acute febrile illness at Khwaja Yunus Ali Medical College and Hospital in Bangladesh. Eur J Med Health Sci. 2020;2(3):46-51.
Sultana M, Bilkis R, Diba F, Hossain MA. Predominance of multidrug resistant zoonotic Salmonella Enteritidis genotypes in poultry of Bangladesh. J Poult Sci. 2014;0130222.
Sohidullah M, Khan MS, Islam MS, Islam MM, Rahman S, Begum F. Isolation, molecular identification and antibiogram profiles of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. from diarrhoeic cattle reared in selected areas of Bangladesh. Asian J Med Bio Res. 2016;2(4):587-95.
Paul P, Akther S, Ali MZ, Banu H, Khan MS, Khatun MM. Isolation, identification and antibiogram study of Salmonella spp. from poultry farm environment. Int J Anim Biol. 2017;3(2):5-11.
Hossain MM, Jabin T, Hossain MI, Khatun MA, Emam MH, Asaduzzaman M et al. Antibiotic resistance profiling of clinical isolates of Salmonella enterica Serovar Paratyphi A in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Stam J Micro. 2021;11(1):14-6.
Rana E. Antibiotic resistance, microbial and morphological changes of marketed bovine liver at different time interval from Chittagong, Bangladesh: A public health Concern. Res Rev J Vet Sci. 2017;3(1):16-23.
Sarker BR, Ghosh S, Chowdhury S, Dutta A, Chandra Deb L, Krishna Sarker B et al. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of non-typhoidal Salmonella isolated from chickens in Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Vet Med Sci. 2021;7(3):820-30.
Uddin MS, Hoq MI, Ali MS, Rahman MM, Islam KS. Antibiotic resistance pattern of Salmonella spp. isolated from stool samples of hospitalized diarrheal patients in Bangladesh. Asian J Med Bio Res. 2017;3(4):534-538.
Mamun MA, Kabir SL, Islam MM, Lubna M, Islam SS, Akhter AT et al. Molecular identification and characterization of Salmonella species isolated from poultry value chains of Gazipur and Tangail districts of Bangladesh. African J Micro Res. 2017; 11:474–481.
Rahman MA, Rahman AK, Islam MA, Alam MM. Detection of multi–drug resistant Salmonella from milk and meat in Bangladesh. BJVM. 2018;16(1):115-20.
Karim SJ, Islam M, Sikder T, Rubaya R, Halder J, Alam J. Multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. isolated from pigeons. Vet World. 2020;13(10):2156.
Alam SB, Mahmud M, Akter R, Hasan M, Sobur A, Nazir KN et al. Molecular detection of multidrug resistant Salmonella species isolated from broiler farm in Bangladesh. Pathogens. 2020;9(3):201.
Uddin MB, Hossain SB, Hasan M, Alam MN, Debnath M, Begum R et al. Multidrug antimicrobial resistance and molecular detection of MCR-1 gene in Salmonella species isolated from chicken. Animals. 2021;11(1):206.
Islam MB, Shahid SB, Satar AA, Yusuf MA, Islam S, Islam, R. Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance Pattern of Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi A isolated by Automated Blood Culture System. Bangla J Infect Dis. 2020;7(2):57-60.
Manhique-Coutinho L, Chiani P, Michelacci V, Taviani E, Bauhofer AFL, Chissaque A et al. Molecular characterization of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli isolates from children with diarrhea: A cross-sectional study in four provinces of Mozambique: Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in Mozambique. Inter J Infect Dis. 2022;121:190-194.
Qin X, Yang M, Cai H, Liu Y, Gorris L, Aslam MZ et al. Antibiotic Resistance of Salmonella Typhimurium Monophasic Variant 1, 4,, 12: i:-in China: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Antibiotics. 2022;11(4):532.
Racewicz P, Majewski M, Biesiada H, Nowaczewski S, Wilczyński J, Wystalska D et al. Prevalence and characterisation of antimicrobial resistance genes and class 1 and 2 integrons in multiresistant Escherichia coli isolated from poultry production. Sci Reports. 2022;12(1):1-13.
Abdelwahab GE, Ishag HZ, Al Hammadi ZM, Al Yammahi SM, Mohd Yusof MF, Al Yassi MS et al. Antibiotics Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolated from Livestock in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, UAE, 2014–2019. Intern J Micro. 2022;2022.
Elmadiena MM, El Hussein AA, Muckle CA, Cole L, Wilkie E, Mistry K et al. Antimicrobial susceptibility and multi-drug resistance of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovars in Sudan. Tropical Ani Heal Product. 2013;45(5):1113-8.
Wu D, Ding Y, Yao K, Gao W, Wang Y. Antimicrobial resistance analysis of clinical Escherichia coli isolates in neonatal ward. Front Pedia. 2021;9:670470.
Abbassi MS, Kilani H, Zouari M, Mansouri R, El Fekih O, Hammami S et al. Antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from healthy poultry, bovine and ovine in Tunisia: a real animal and human health threat. J Clin Micro Biochem Techno. 2017;3(2):019-23.
Astorga F, Navarrete-Talloni MJ, Miró MP, Bravo V, Toro M, Blondel CJ et al. Antimicrobial resistance in E. coli isolated from dairy calves and bedding material. Heliyon. 2019;5(11):e02773.
Garbaj AM, Gawella TB, Sherif JA, Naas HT, Eshamah HL, Azwai SM et al. Occurrence and antibiogram of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica isolated from dairy products in Libya. Vet World. 2022;15(5):1185.
Eezzeldin HM, Badi S, Yousef, BA. The Antibiotic Resistance and Multidrug Resistance Pattern of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli at Soba University Hospital: A Descriptive Retrospective Survey. Sudan J Med Sci. 2022;17(1):56-69.
Manishimwe R, Moncada PM, Bugarel M, Scott HM, Loneragan GH. Antibiotic resistance among Escherichia coli and Salmonella isolated from dairy cattle feces in Texas. Plos One. 2021;16(5):e0242390.
Oneko M, Kariuki S, Muturi-Kioi V, Otieno K, Otieno VO, Williamson JM et al. Emergence of community-acquired, multidrug-resistant invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella disease in rural Western Kenya, 2009–2013. Clin Infec Dis. 2015;61(suppl_4):S310-6.
Koju P, Shrestha R, Shrestha A, Tamrakar S, Rai A, Shrestha P et al. Antimicrobial resistance in E. coli Isolated from Chicken cecum samples and factors contributing to antimicrobial resistance in Nepal. Tropical Med Infec Dis. 2022;7(9):249.
Samy AA, Mansour AS, Khalaf DD, Khairy EA. Development of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli in some Egyptian veterinary farms. Vet World. 2022;15(2):488.
Herrera-Sánchez MP, Castro-Vargas RE, Fandiño-de-Rubio LC, Rodríguez-Hernández R, Rondón-Barragán IS. Molecular identification of fluoroquinolone resistance in Salmonella spp.
Qamar A, Ismail T, Akhtar S. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella spp. in South Punjab-Pakistan. Plos One. 2020;15(11):e0232382.
Vuthy Y, Lay KS, Seiha H, Kerleguer A, Aidara-Kane A. Antibiotic susceptibility and molecular characterization of resistance genes among Escherichia coli and among Salmonella subsp. In chicken food chains. Asian Paci J Trop Biomed. 2017;7(7):670-4.
Mingeot-Leclercq MP, Glupczynski Y, Tulkens PM. Aminoglycosides: activity and resistance. Antimicrob Age Chemothe. 1999;43(4):727-37.
García-Béjar B, García de Blas Martín I, Arévalo-Villena M, Briones Pérez A. High Prevalence of Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli isolates from Retail Poultry Products in Spain. Animals. 2021; 11(11):3197.
Wajid M, Awan AB, Saleemi MK, Weinreich J, Schierack P, Sarwar Y et al. Multiple drug resistance and virulence profiling of Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis from poultry farms of Faisalabad, Pakistan. Microb Drug Resis. 2019;25(1):133-42.
Giguere S, Prescott JF, Baggot JD, Walker RD, Dowling PM. Antimicrobial therapy in veterinary medicine. 4th ed. Wiley-Blackwell: New Jersey, USA, 2006; ISBN 978-0-8138-0656-3.
Kibret M, Abera B. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of E. coli from clinical sources in northeast Ethiopia. Afri Hea Sci. 2011;11:40-5.
Ranasinghe RASS, Satharasinghe DA, Anwarama PS, Parakatawella PMSDK, Jayasooriya LJPAP, Ranasinghe RMSBK et al. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Escherichia coli in Chicken Meat and Edible Poultry Organs Collected from Retail Shops and Supermarkets of North Western Province in Sri Lanka. J Food Qua. 2022;8962698:1-10.
Ramatla T, Tawana M, Onyiche TE, Lekota KE, Thekisoe O. Prevalence of antibiotic resistance in Salmonella serotypes concurrently isolated from the environment, animals, and humans in South Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Antibiotics. 2021; 10(12):1435.
Sharma J, Kumar D, Hussain S, Pathak A, Shukla M, Kumar VP et al. Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes characterization of nontyphoidal Salmonella isolated from retail chicken meat shops in Northern India. Food Control. 2019;102:104-11.
Cardoso MO, Ribeiro AR, Santos LR, Pilotto F, de Moraes HL, Salle CT et al. Resistência antimicrobiana em Salmonella Enteritidis isoladas de carcaças de frango. Braz J Microb. 2006;37:368-71.
Adzitey F, Asiamah P, Boateng EF. Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Salmonella enterica isolated from cow milk, milk products and hands of sellers in the Tamale Metropolis of Ghana. J Appl Sci Environ Manage. 2020;24(1):59-64.
Xiang Y, Wu F, Chai Y, Xu X, Yang L, Tian S et al. A new plasmid carrying mphA causes prevalence of azithromycin resistance in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli serogroup O6. BMC Microbio. 2020;20(1):1-9.
Gupta R, Sarkar B, Sharma M, Choudhary S, Mahawar P. Increasing Azithromycin resistance Salmonella bacteremia in pediatric population in a secondary care center in India. Int J Infect Dis. 2020;101:74.
Wilkerson C, Samadpour M, van Kirk N, Roberts MC. Antibiotic resistance and distribution of tetracycline resistance genes in Escherichia coli O157: H7 isolates from humans and bovines. Antimicro Age Chemothe. 2004;48(3):1066-7.
Pavelquesi SLS, de Oliveira Ferreira ACA, Rodrigues ARM, de Souza Silva CM, Orsi, DC, da Silva ICR. Presence of tetracycline and sulfonamide resistance genes in Salmonella spp.: literature review. Antibiotics. 2021;10(11):1314.
Waghamare RN, Paturkar AM, Vaidya VM, Zende RJ, Dubal ZN, Dwivedi A et al. Phenotypic and genotypic drug resistance profile of Salmonella serovars isolated from poultry farm and processing units located in and around Mumbai city, India. Vet World. 2018;11(12):1682.
"Chloramphenicol". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the Original on 25 June 2015.
Retrieved 1 August 2015.
Accessed 3 November 2022.
Okoli CI, Chah KF, Ozoh PT, Udedibie AB, Okoli IC. Anti microbial resistance profile of E. coli isolates from tropical free range chickens. OJHAS. 2005;4(3).
Busani L, Graziani C, Battisti A, Franco A, Ricci A, Vio D, Digiannatale E et al. Antibiotic resistance in Salmonella enterica serotypes Typhimurium, Enteritidis and Infantis from human infections, foodstuffs and farm animals in Italy. Epide Infec. 2004;132(2):245-51.
El-Sharkawy H, Tahoun A, El-Gohary AE, El-Abasy M, El-Khayat F, Gillespie T et al. Epidemiological, molecular characteri-zation and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella enterica serovars isolated from chicken farms in Egypt. Gut Pathog. 2017;9:1–2.
Bailey AM, Weant KA, Baker SN. Prevalence and risk factor analysis of resistant Escherichia coli urinary tract infections in the emergency department. Pharm Practi. 2013;11(2):96.
Nguyen TK, Nguyen LT, Chau TT, Nguyen TT, Tran BN, Taniguchi T et al. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella isolated from poultry and its environment in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Vet World. 2021;14(12):3216.
Dahshan H, Chuma T, Shahada F, Akiba M, Fujimoto H, Akasaka K wt al. Characterization of antibiotic resistance and the emergence of AmpC-producing Salmonella Infantis from pigs. J Vet Med Sci. 2010;72(11):1437-42.
Colistin: Uses, Interactions, Mechanism of Action – Drug Bank.
Accessed 3 November 2022.
Hess C, Troxler S, Jandreski-Cvetkovic D, Zloch A, Hess M. Escherichia coli Isolated from organic laying hens reveal a high level of antimicrobial resistance despite no antimicrobial treatments. Antibiotics. 2022;11(4):467.
Phiri N, Mainda G, Mukuma M, Sinyangwe NN, Banda LJ, Kwenda G et al. Antibiotic-resistant Salmonella species and Escherichia coli in broiler chickens from farms, abattoirs and open markets in selected districts of Zambia. J Epidemio Res. 2020;6(1):13-21.
Abstract View: 170 times
PDF Download: 50 times