Assessing Economic Livelihood of Small-scale City Swine Farmers Using Structural Equation Model of PLS: Special Case of Manokwari, West New Guinea Papua

Makarius Bajari *

Faculty of Economic and Business, Papua University, Manokwari, Papua Barat, Indonesia.

Trisiwi Wahyu Widayati

Faculty of Animal Science, Papua University, Manokwari, Papua Barat, Indonesia.

Siti Saadiyah

Faculty of Agriculture, Papua University, Manokwari, Papua Barat, Indonesia.

Deny Anjelus Iyai

Faculty of Animal Science, Papua University, Manokwari, Papua Barat, Indonesia.

Stepanus Pakage

Faculty of Animal Science, Papua University, Manokwari, Papua Barat, Indonesia.

. Mulyadi

Faculty of Animal Science, Papua University, Manokwari, Papua Barat, Indonesia.

Hans Mamboai

Faculty of Agriculture, Papua University, Manokwari, Papua Barat, Indonesia.

Desni Saragih

Faculty of Animal Science, Papua University, Manokwari, Papua Barat, Indonesia.

Siti Aisah Bauw

Faculty of Economic and Business, Papua University, Manokwari, Papua Barat, Indonesia.

Djonly Woran

Faculty of Animal Science, Papua University, Manokwari, Papua Barat, Indonesia.

Yubelince Runtuboi

Faculty of Forestry, Papua University, Manokwari, Papua Barat, Indonesia.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


City swine farmers have been raising the swine in economical ways for generations. The research objective was to depict a sustaining small-home business of the city swine production, and to assure existence, sustainability and the roles in economic and production purposes. The represented sixty city farmers selected using snowball method as respondents gained from several sub districts. Questionnaire made was used in interviewing respondents of swine farmers. The SemPLS employed by using economical model. The principal findings are significant parameters and hypothesis proven in model designs are population swine affected cost swine and price of swine (p=0,000), price of swine induce sold swine (p=0.000) and sold swine determined income generation (p=0.000). Dropped variables after re-analyzed are X4: Cost breed, X7: cost housing, X8: Cost tools (loading factor under 0.5). It has been concluded from our study that SemPLS has been proven to be a flexible and an analytical tool that is suitable to test more number of parameters simultaneously.

Keywords: City swine farming (csf), SemPLS, West New Guinea Papua (WNGP)

How to Cite

Bajari, Makarius, Trisiwi Wahyu Widayati, Siti Saadiyah, Deny Anjelus Iyai, Stepanus Pakage, . Mulyadi, Hans Mamboai, Desni Saragih, Siti Aisah Bauw, Djonly Woran, and Yubelince Runtuboi. 2022. “Assessing Economic Livelihood of Small-Scale City Swine Farmers Using Structural Equation Model of PLS: Special Case of Manokwari, West New Guinea Papua”. Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences 5 (3):215-23.


Download data is not yet available.


Kruska RL, Reid RS, Thornton PK, Henninger N, Kristjanson PM. Mapping livestock-oriented agricultural production systems for the Developing World. Agric Syst. 2003;77(1):39-63.

DOI: 10.1016/S0308-521X(02)00085-9

Eliakunda Kimbi, Faustin Lekule, James Mlangwa, Helena Mejer, Stig Thamsborg. Smallholder pigs production systems in Tanzania. J Agric Sci Technol A. 2015;5(1).

DOI: 10.17265/2161-6256/2015.01A.007

Lassen J, Sandøe P, Forkman B. Happy pigs are dirty! – Conflicting perspectives on animal welfare. Livest Sci. 2006;103(3):221-30.

DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2006.05.008

Mutibvu T, Maburutse BE, Mbiriri DT, Kashangura MT. Constraints and opportunities for increased livestock production in communal areas: A case study of Simbe, Zimbabwe. Livest Res Rural Dev. 2012;6:6781.

Ouma EA, Dione MM, Lule P, Roesel K, Mayega L, Kiryabwire D, et al. Characterization of smallholder pig production systems in Uganda. Livest Res Rural Dev. 2013;26(3):2014.

Zebua CKN, Muladno M, Siagian PH. Comparative performances of landrace, Yorkshire and Duroc breeds of swine. J Indones Trop Anim Agric. 2017;42(3): 147-52.

DOI: 10.14710/jitaa.42.3.147-152

Govoeyi B, Ahounou SG, Agbokounou AM, Salifou CFA, Dotche IO, Kiki PS et al. Participatory innovation analysis along livestock value chains: case of swine value chain in Benin. Agric Syst. 2019;174: 11-22.

DOI: 10.1016/j.agsy.2019.04.007.

Uwizeye A, Gerber PJ, Opio CI, Tempio G, Mottet A, Makkar HPS, et al. Nitrogen flows in global pork supply chains and potential improvement from feeding swill to pigs. Resour Conserv Recy. 2019;146:168-79.

DOI: 10.1016/j.resconrec.2019.03.032

Terry JP, Khatri K. People, pigs and pollution – experiences with applying participatory learning and action (PLA) methodology to identify problems of pig-waste management at the village level in Fiji. J Cleaner Prod. 2009;17(16): 1393-400.

DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2009.06.001

Muhanguzi D, Lutwama V, Mwiine FN. Factors that influence pig production in central Uganda – case study of Nangabo sub-county, Wakiso District. Vet World. 2012;5(6):346-51.

DOI: 10.5455/vetworld.2012.346-351

Waithaka MM, Thornton PK, Herrero M, Shepherd KD. Bio-economic evaluation of farmers ”perceptions of viable farms in Western Kenya.” Agric Syst. 2006; 90(1-3):243-71.

DOI: 10.1016/j.agsy.2005.12.007

Vermeer HM, de Greef KH, Houwers HWJ. Space allowance and pen size affect welfare indicators and performance of growing pigs under comfort class conditions. Livest Sci. 2014;159(1):79-86.

DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2013.10.021

Schodl K, Leeb C, Winckler C. Developing science—industry collaborations into a transdisciplinary process: A case study on improving sustainability of pork production. Sustainability Sci. 2015;10(4):639-51.

DOI: 10.1007/s11625-015-0329-1

Budiyanto A, Tophianong TC, Triguntoro , Dewi HK. Gangguan reproduksi sapi bali pada pola Pemeliharaan semi intensif di daerah sistem integrasi sapi – Kelapa Sawit. Acta VET Indones. 2016;4(1):14-8.

DOI: 10.29244/avi.4.1.14-18

Mezgebe G, Gizaw S, Urge M. Economic values of Begait cattle breeding-objective traits under low and medium input production systems in Northern Ethiopia. Livest Res Rural Dev. 2018;30(3).

Schaak H, Mußhoff O. Understanding the adoption of grazing practices in German dairy farming. Agricultural Systems. 2018; 165:230-39.

DOI: 10.1016/j.agsy.2018.06.015

Buttner K, Czycholl I, Mees K, Krieter J. Agonistic interactions in pigs-comparison of dominance indices with Paramters derived from social network analysis in three age groups. Animals. 2019;929(9):2-18.

Mugonya J, Kalule SW, Ndyomugyenyi EK. Effect of market information quality, sharing and utilisation on the innovation behaviour of smallholder pig producers. Cogen Food Agric. 2021;7(1):1-18.

DOI: 10.1080/23311932.2021.1948726

Winkel C, von Meyer-Hofer M, Heise H. 4_Understanding German pig farmers’ intentions to design construct pig housing for the improvement of animal welfare. Enhanced Read.Pdf.” Animals. 2020;1760(10):1-23.

Yue D, Sarkar A, Guang C. Impacts of incentive and disincentive mechanisms for ensuring environmentally friendly livestock waste management. Animals (Basel). 2022;12(16):1-17.

DOI: 10.3390/ani12162121, PMID 36009712.

Pedersen LJ. Overview of commercial pig production systems and their main welfare challenges. Adv Pig Welf. 2017;1:3-25.

DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-08-101012-9.00001-0

Murgueitio E. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences intensive sustainable livestock production: An alternative to tropical deforestation. 2017;19(8):397-400.

Sulistiawati R, Kusrini N, _ I, and _ Imelda. Peningkatan kesejahteraan melalui Kemandirian petani dalam Pengelolaan integrasi Sawit sapi berkelanjutan. J Ekon Kuantitatif Terapan Univ Udayana. 2018.

DOI: 10.24843/JEKT.2018.v11.i02.p09

Safitri SA, Suharno S, Fariyanti A. Bauran pemasaran kepuasan dan loyalitas pelanggan benih kelapa sawit pt socfin Indonesia. JM. 2017;21(1).

DOI: 10.24912/jm.v21i1.148

Iyai DA. Comparing characteristics of various agro-ecological zones of pig farming systems; case study of islands, coastal and lowland pig farming systems in papua and West Papua. 2011;9:88-99.

Phiri RE. Determination of piggery business profitability in Balaka District in Malawi. Livest Res Rural Dev. 2012a;24(8):2588.

Montsho T, Moreki JC. Challenges in commercial pig production in Botswana. J Agric Technol. 2012;8(4):1161-70.

Widayati TW, Sumpe I, Irianti BW, Iyai DA, Randa SY. Faktor- faktor yang mempengaruhi produksi usaha ternak babi di Teluk Doreri kabupaten Manokwari. Agrika. 2018;12.

Iyai DA, Rahayu BWI, Sumpe I, Saragih D. Analysis of pig profiles on small-scale pig farmers in Manokwari-West Papua analysis of pig profiles on small-scale pig farmers in Manokwari-West Papua,’ no. J Indonesian Trop Anim Agric. 2018;36(3).

DOI: 10.14710/jitaa.36.3.190-197.

Wea R, Ninu AYumima, Leoanak SP. Optimalisasi peternakan BABI bibit unggul (Persilangan Landrace Dan DUROC) Bagi Peternak Lokal Di Nusa Tenggara Timur [Persilangan landrace dan Duroc]. J Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat. 2020; 26(3).

DOI: 10.24114/jpkm.v26i3.14897

Boogaard BK, Boekhorst LJS, Oosting SJ, Sørensen JT. Socio-cultural sustainability of pig production: citizen perceptions in the Netherlands and Denmark. Livest Sci. 2011;140(1-3):189-200.

DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2011.03.028

Horsted K, Kongsted AG, Jørgensen U, Sørensen J. Combined production of free-range pigs and energy crops — animal behaviour and crop damages. Livest Sci. 2012;150(1-3):200-8.

DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2012.09.006

de Barcellos MD, Grunert KG, Zhou Y, Verbeke W, Perez-Cueto FJA, Krystallis A. Consumer attitudes to different pig production systems: A study from Mainland China. Agric Hum Values. 2013;30(3):443-55.

DOI: 10.1007/s10460-012-9416-4

Relun A, Charrier F, Trabucco B, Maestrini O, Molia S, Chavernac D, et al. Multivariate analysis of traditional pig management practices and their potential impact on the spread of infectious diseases in Corsica. Prev Vet Med. 2015;121(3-4):Elsevier B.V:246-56.

DOI: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2015.07.004, PMID 26216476.

Correia-Gomes C, Henry MK, Auty HK, Gunn GJ. Exploring the role of small-scale livestock keepers for national biosecurity—the pig case. Prev Vet Med. 2017;145:7-15.

DOI: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2017.06.005, PMID 28903877.

Phuong NV, Hanh DTM, Cuong TH, Markemann A, Zárate AV, Mergenthaler M. Impact of quality attributes and marketing factors on prices for indigenous pork in Vietnam to promote sustainable utilization of local genetic resources. 2014;26(5).

Chau, Le Thi M, Lebailly P, Trung TQ. Enhancing farmers’ market power and income in the pig value chain; a case study in BAC Giang Province, Vietnam. Livest Res Rural Dev. Livestock Research for Rural Development 2017;29(12):Article #221e.”

De Jonge FH, Tilly S, Baars AM, Spruijt BM. On the rewarding nature of appetitive feeding behaviour in pigs (Sus scrofa): do domesticated pigs contrafreeload?. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 2008;114(3-4):359-72.

DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2008.03.006

Krystallis A, de Barcellos MD, Kügler JO, Verbeke W, Grunert KG. Attitudes of European citizens towards pig production systems. Livest Sci. 2009;126(1-3):46-56.

DOI: 0.1016/j.livsci.2009.05.016

Colson V, Martin E, Orgeur P, Prunier A. Influence of housing and social changes on growth, behaviour and cortisol in piglets at weaning. Physiol Behav. 2012;107(1):59-64.

DOI: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2012.06.001, PMID 22691708.

Yun J, Swan KM, Vienola K, Farmer C, Oliviero C, Peltoniemi O, et al. Nest-building in sows: effects of farrowing housing on hormonal modulation of maternal characteristics. Appl Anim Behav Sci. 2013;148(1-2):77-84.

DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2013.07.010

Grimberg-Henrici CGE, Büttner K, Meyer C, Krieter J. Does housing influence maternal behaviour in sows? Appl Anim Behav Sci. 2016;180:26-34.

DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2016.04.005

Wabacha JK, Maribei JM, Mulei CM, Kyule MN, Zessin KH, Oluoch-Kosura W. Health and production measures for smallholder pig production in kikuyu division, central Kenya. Prev Vet Med. 2004;63(3-4): 197-210.

DOI: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2004.02.006, PMID 15158571.

Tekle T, Tesfay A, Kifleyohannes T. Smallholder pig production and its constraints in Mekelle and southern zone of Tigray region, North Ethiopia. Livest Res Rural Dev. Livestock Research for Rural Development 2013;25(10):5455:Article #184.

DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-9-97.Ashebir

Sani AS, Makandolu SM, Sogen JG. Efisiensi penggunaan faktor produksi pada usaha ternak Babi skala rumah tangga di kecamatan Ende Timur, kabupaten Ende. JNP. Peternakan JN. Universitas nusa Cendana. 2020;7(1):41-50.

DOI: 10.35508/nukleus.v7i1.2258

DOI: 10.35508/nukleus.v7i1.2258

Olson PD, Zuiker VS, Danes SM, Stafford K, Heck RKZ, Duncan KA. The impact of the family and the business on family business sustainability. J Bus Venturing. 2003;18(5):639-66.

DOI: 10.1016/S0883-9026(03)00014-4

Ly J, Samkol P, Preston TR. Nutritional evaluation of tropical leaves for pigs: Pepsin / pancreatin digestibility of thirteen plant species. 2001;133593.