Haematological Response, Serum Biochemical Parameters and Sensory Characteristics of Rabbits Fed Diets Containing Graded Levels of Rice Offal Treated with Rumen Filtrate

Main Article Content

Albert Terlumun Kpehe
Comfort Dooshima Tuleun
Fabian Gyizaka Kaankuka
Samuel Mtsegh Tiough
Orduen Imenger


A ten-week study was carried out to determine the effect of inclusion levels of dietary rumen filtrate-fermented rice offal on the haematology and sensory characteristics of rabbits. Twenty five (25) growing crossbred rabbit bucks weighed between 625.34 g-631.21 g were divided into five (5) treatment groups of five (5) rabbits each with each rabbit serving as a replicate in a completely randomized design experiment. The control group was fed with a diet containing maize as the main energy source while the remaining four groups were fed with diets in which the maize was replaced with 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% rumen filtrate fermented-rice offal meals respectively. Values obtained for measured parameters in all treatment groups for haematological and serum biochemical indices were within the normal range for rabbits. However, the experimental diets had significant effect (P<0.05) on haemoglobin, white blood cell count, monocytes, eosinophiles and blood cholesterol. The diets showed no significant effect (P>0.05) on the sensory properties of rabbit meat. It was concluded that inclusion of rumen filtrate-fermented rice offal at 20% levels in the diets of growing rabbits maintained a good health and better meat quality as shown by results of haematological and organoleptic properties of the rabbits. It was therefore recommended that feed manufacturers and rabbit farmers can incorporate up to 20% of bovine rumen filtrate-fermented rice offal meal in the diets of rabbits without compromising on the health of the rabbits and the quality of rabbit meat.

Fermentation, haematology, meat quality, rabbits, rice offal, rumen filtrate.

Article Details

How to Cite
Kpehe, A. T., Tuleun, C. D., Kaankuka, F. G., Tiough, S. M., & Imenger, O. (2020). Haematological Response, Serum Biochemical Parameters and Sensory Characteristics of Rabbits Fed Diets Containing Graded Levels of Rice Offal Treated with Rumen Filtrate. Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, 5(3), 8-18. Retrieved from http://journalajravs.com/index.php/AJRAVS/article/view/30092
Original Research Article


Alawa JP, Umunna NN. Alternative feed formulation in developing countries. Prospect for utilization of agro-industrial by-products. Journal of Animal Production Research. 1993;13:69-98.

Aduku AO, Olukosi JO. Rabbit management in the tropics: Production processing, utilization, marketing, future prospects. Abuja, Nigeria Living Books Series, Abuja FCT. 1990;35-68.

Egbo ML, Doma UD, Lacdaks AB. Characteristics of small scale rabbit production and management in Bauchi metropolis. Proceedings of the 26th Annual Conference of Nigerian Society for Animal Production. 18-21 March, ABU Zaria. 2001;160-162.

Harris DJ, Cheeke PR, Patton MM. Feed preference studies with rabbit fed fourteen different green. Journal of Applied Rabbit Research. 1983;6:120-124.

Omoikhoje SO, Bamgbose AO, Aruna MB, Asubiaro SM. Growth response of weaned rabbits fed varying levels of unpeeled cassava root meal. Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference on Nigerian Society for Animal Production. March 12-15, Nigeria. 2006;290-294.

Ayoola MA, Akinbani AS. Effects of replacing maize with sundried yam peel meal on growth performance, carcass characteristics and economic of production of meat type rabbit. Researcher. 2011;3(4): 70-73.

Okpanachi U. Growth and haematological response of growing rabbits to diets containing graded levels of sun dried bovine rumen content. A Project Report Submitted to the Department of Animal Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirement for the Award of M.sc in Nutrition and Biochemistry. 2008;62.

Kanyinj F, Moonga M. Effect of replacing maize meal with rumen filtrate fermented cassava meal on growth and egg production performance in Japanese Quails (Cortonix japonica). Journal of Advanced Veterinary Animal Research. 2014;1(3):100-106.

Maikano A. Utilization of rice offal in practical ration of broilers. The Zoologist. 2007;5:1-7.

Oyelu OS, Aduku AA. Evaluation of the nutritive potential of rice bran and wheat offal on growth performance of pre-pubertal rabbits. Bowen Journal of Agriculture. 2002;5:105-110.

Wudiri BB. Production of cereal crops in Nigeria. From research to farmers’ fields. A Seminar Paper Delivered to Staff and Students at the Plateau State College of Agriculture, Lafia; 1991.

Oyawoye EO, Nelson FS. Optimum level of inclusion of rice offal in the diet of young cockerels. Conference of Nigerian Society of Animal Production. 21st-25th March Held at the University of Ilorin, Ilorin Nigeria; 1999.

Aro SO, Aletor VA, Tewe OO, Fajemisin AN, Usifo B, Falowo AB. Preliminary investigation on the nutrients, anti-nutrients and mineral composition of microbially fermented cassava starch residues. Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Conference of Nigerian Society for Animal Production. Ayetoro, Ogun State Nigeria: March 16-20. 2008;248-251.

Oboh G. Nutrition enrichment of cassava peels using a mixed culture of Saccharomyces cerevisae and Lactobacillus spp. solid media fermentation techniques. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology. 2006;9:46-49.

Oluremi OIA, Ajih EE, Anthony W. Evaluation of rumen filtrate for fermentation of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel in rabbit feed. Animal and Veterinary Sciences. 2018;6(1):1-5.
DOI: 10.11648/j.avs.20180601.11

Acamovic T. Commercial application of enzymes technology for poultry production. World's Poultry Science Journal. 2001;57: 225-235.

Adeyemi OA, Eruvbetine D, Oguntona T, Dipeolu MA, Agunbiade JA. Enhancing the nutritional value of whole cassava root meal by rumen filtrate fermentation. Archivos de Zootecnia. 2007;56:261-264.

Yakubu B, Adegbola TA, Bogoro S, Yussuf HB. Effect of urea treated and untreated rice offal on the performance of broilers: Growth performances and economy of production. Journal of Sustainable Development in Agricultural Environment. 2007;3:7-13.

Onuh SO. The effect of replacing full-fat soybeans with urea fermented sorghum brewers’ grain in broiler starter diets. Animal Production Research Advances. 2011;7(4):282-285.

NIMET. Nigerian Meteorological Agency, Gboko, Benue State; 2019.

Dairo FAS, Aina A, Omoyemi L, Adegun MK. Ensiled cassava peel and caged layers’ manure mixture as energy source in broiler starter diet. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology. 2011;1:519-524.

A.O.A.C. Official method of analysis, 18th Ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists Washington DC; 2005.

Aduku AO. Tropical feedstuff-analysis table. Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru, Zaria, Nigeria. 1993;1-2.

Pauzenga U. Feeding parent stock. Zootenicia International. 1985;22-24.

Coles EH. Veterinary clinical pathology. 4th Edition. Saunders Comp. Philadelphia, London, Toronto; 1986.

Bush BM. Interpretation of laboratory results for small animal clinicians. Blackwell Scientific Publications. London. UK. 1991;32-67.

Trinder P. Determination of glucose using glucose oxidase with actemafine. Manual of Clinical Chemistry. 1969;6:24.

Henry RJ. Clinical chemistry; Principles and techniques. Harper and Row, New York. 1963;268.

Naito HK. Reliability of lipids, lipo-protein and apoloprotein measurements. Clinical Chemistry. 1988;34:B84-94.

Lowry OH, Rosenbrough NJ, Randall RJ. Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1951;193:265-275.

Özkan C, Kaya A, Akgül Y. Normal values of haematological and some biochemical parameters in serum and urine of New Zealand White rabbits. World Rabbit Science. 2012;20(4):253-259.

Boleman SJ, Boleman SL, Miller RK. Consumer evaluation of beef of known categories of tenderness. Journal of Animal Science. 1997;75(6):1521-1524.

R.A.R. Reference values for laboratory animal; Normal hematological values. Research Animal Resources, University of Minnesota; 2009.

Mitruka BM, Rawnsley HM. Clinical, biochemical and haematological reference values in normal and experimental animals. Masson Publishing, USA, Inc. 1997;83:134-135.

Olabanji RO, Farinu GO, Akinlade JA, Ojebiyi OO. Growth performance and haematological characteristics of weaner rabbits fed different levels of wild sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia Hems LA. Gray) leaf blood meal mixture. Proceedings of 32nd Animal Conference of Nigerian Society for Animal Production. 2007;207-209.

Joshi PK, Bose M, Harish D. Changes in certain haematological parameters in a siluroid catfish Clarias batrachus (Linn) exposed to cadmium chloride. Pollution Research. 2002a;21(2):129-131.

Togun VA, Oseni BSA, Ogundipe JA, Arewa TR, Hammed AA, Ajonijebu DC, Oyeniran A, Nwosisi I, Mustapha F. Effects of chronic lead administration on the haematological parameters of rabbits; A preliminary study. Proceedings of the 41st Conference of the Agricultural Society of Nigeria. 2006;341.

Ahamefule FO, Obua BE, Ukweni IA, Oguike MA, Amaka RA. Haematological and biochemical profile of weaner rabbits fed raw or processed pigeon pea seed meal based diets. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2008;3(4):315-319.

Esonu BO, Emenelom OO, Udedibie ABI, Herbert U, Ekpor CF, Okoli IC, Iheukwumere FC. Performance and blood chemistry of weaner pigs fed raw Mucuna (Velvet bean) meal. Tropical Animal Production Investigation. 2001;4:49-54.

Oyawoye EO, Ogunkunle M. Physiological and biochemical effects of raw jack beans on broilers. Proceedings of Annual Conference of Nigerian Society of Animal Production. 1998;23:141-142.

PGCV. Rabbits and rodents. Laboratory Animal Science. Proc. No. 142. Post Graduate Committee in Veterinary Science (PGCV). University of Sydney, Australia; 1990.

Ahemen T, Abu AH, Anongu TT. The effect of feeding varying levels of water spinach (Ipomoea acquatica) leaf meal on reproductive tract morphometry, haemato-logy and serum biochemical parameters of female rabbits. Middle-East Journal of Science Research. 2015;23(11):2791-2796.

Ochefu J. The effect of Kapok (Ceiba pentandra) seed meal based diets on growth, carcass yield and blood chemistry of weaner rabbits. M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Animal Breeding and Physiology, University of Agriculture, Makurdi; 2006.

Wognin LRM, Otchoumou KA, Yao KA, Niamke S. Improving the nutritive value and sensory quality of rabbit meat by using leafy vegetables as feedstuffs. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences. 2018;36(1): 5812-5824.